ANALYSIS of SLOVAK AGRICULTURAL POSITION FROM Tthe PERSPECTIVE of SELECTED INDICATORS and SLOVAK REGIONS - Polish Journal of Management Studies

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ANALYSIS of SLOVAK AGRICULTURAL POSITION FROM Tthe PERSPECTIVE of SELECTED INDICATORS and SLOVAK REGIONS

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ANALYSIS OF SLOVAK AGRICULTURAL POSITION FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF SELECTED INDICATORS AND SLOVAK REGIONS  
Širá E.

Abstract: This article deals with evaluation of agricultural performance on the market through selected indicators. According to the period 2000 2011 or 2012, we analyse, how the development trends in agriculture changed. Firstly we analyse the amount of GDP in agriculture, the number of employees, the average salary and competitiveness in foreign markets. Then we analyse the amount of agricultural production according to each region of Slovakia to show, what the effectiveness of each region is.

Key words:
agriculture, Slovak republic, GDP, employment, wages, michaely Index, RCA 1 Index, Regions in Slovakia  

Introduction


Agriculture   is   irreplaceable in every economy .  The   national economy is usually divided into three sectors .  Agriculture   belongs to the   primary sector according to this division .  This sector   is   characterized   by providing   essential   resources   from nature   and   providing   products   that have   not undergone   any   processing   stage .  [2]
Agricultural   production is   according to Spišiak  [6 ]  a conscious   and   systematic   use of natural   forces   and   resources that   evaluates the   biological   properties of some   plants and animals   to ensure   food   and   other   raw materials needed to   meet basic   subsistence   needs of man.
Many authors in Slovakia analyse the Slovak agriculture sector according to selected indicators. Kotulič and Pavelková [4] analyse the financial situation of agriculture
s companies. Kotulič, Adamišin and Vozárová [3] analyse the impact of foreign direct investments to agriculture according to regions of Slovakia. Ubrežiová et al. [8] dedicated at the internationalization in Slovak milk processing industry. None of mentioned authors, analyse the agriculture sector according to indicators, which we use.
When quantifying   the competitiveness of   this industry,   there exist several   approaches .  The most frequently   mentioned  one  in   the literature  is the RCA ( revealed   comparative   advantage) coefficient .
Coefficient   RCA   1   -   compares   the share   of exports   and   imports of   selected   commodity   groups   to the total exports  and imports  of the country .


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Summary

Based on selected indicators, we examined the development of Slovak agriculture in the years 2000 - 2011 (or 2012).
The Slovak Republic recorded growth of GDP except in 2009, when GDP fell compared with the previous year. Consequently, since 2010 the GDP has grown again. In comparison of GDP growth in agriculture with the GDP growth of the country, the significant differences can be seen. While GDP in agriculture grew almost over the whole period, its share on the country's GDP declined. This was due to slower growth in agricultural GDP compared to GDP growth of the country. Currently, the share of agriculture in GDP is about 3% of the country's GDP.
The number of people working in agriculture had a downward trend during the period. In 2000 there worked about 7% of all workers in agriculture, but in 2012 only about 3%. However, despite this fact, the volume of production of the agricultural sector grew. The average wage of workers in agriculture during the period grew, but its growth was slower than the average wage in national economy. In 2012, the average wage in the economy was € 805, in agriculture it was € 637.
The position of Slovak agriculture in the foreign markets was examined via RCA values 1 and Michaely index. The most competitive area of Slovak agriculture in foreign markets was the livestock production throughout this period. Thus, we can conclude that the export is intended primarily on livestock production, which has competitive advantage in the foreign markets.
At the beginning of the examined period (2000 - 2003, 2005) there prevailed livestock production in Slovakia. In years 2004, 2006-2011 there was the change to crop production in Slovak agriculture.
In regional analysis, we identified the regions with above-average agricultural production throughout the period, which was in Nitra and Trnava regions. In both cases, the regions specialized in crop production. Based on a comparison of the percentage of crop and livestock production we identified regions with a predominance of plant and animal production in total agricultural production. In summary, we can conclude that the 4 regions had a predominance of livestock production over plant production.
This article is an output of grant VEGA 1/0541/11 - Analysis of Performance Determinants of Entities Operating on the Land in Accordance with Regional Differentiation of Slovakia.

References

[1]. Borovský J., Zmeny a konkurencieschopnosť podnikov. 2009, [online], [cited 2009-8-19]. Available at: <http://www.comedit.eu/index.php?menu=5&jazyk=sk>
[2]. Hečková J. et al. Národohospodárstvo. Prešov: Prešovská univerzita v Prešove, Fakulta manažmentu, 2009. 286 p.
[3]. Kotulič R., Adamišin P., Vozárová I., Stav priamych zahraničných investícií a ich vplyv na trvalo udržateľný rozvoj regiónov v Slovenskej republike. In: XVI. mezinárodní kolokvium o regionálních vědách [elektronický zdroj] : sborník příspěvků : Valtice, 19.-21.6.2013, Brno : Masarykova univerzita, 2013
[4]. Kotulič R., Pavelková J., Prosperita a produktivita subjektov hospodáriacich na pôde v Slovenskej republike na prelome druhého tisícročia: analytický pohľad na efektívne riadenie zdrojov pre zabezpečenie finančného zdravia podniku. Prešov : Prešovská univerzita v Prešove, 2012, 84 p. [online], [cited 2013-7-24]. Available at:: http://www.pulib.sk/elpub/FM/Kotulic16/index.html>
[5]. NUTS – Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics. . [online], [cited 2013-7-9]. Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nomenclature_of_Territorial_Units_for_Statistics>
[6]. Spišiak P., Základy geografie poľnohospodárstva a lesného hospodárstva. Bratislava : Polygrafické stredisko UK, 2000, 148 s.
[7]. StatisticaL Office of SR [online], [cited 2013-7-10]. Available at: http://www.statistics.sk/pls/elisw/objekt.send?uic=593&m_sso=5&m_so=29&ic=78>
[8]. Ubrežiová I. et al., International business and the reasons of the internationalization activities in the Slovak agri - food complex: The case study of the Slovak milk processing industry. In: AGRIC.ECON.-CZECH, 55, 2009 (12): 605 - 610, [online], [cited 2013-7-11]. Available at: www.cazv.cz>  


ANALIZA STANU ROLNICTWA NA SŁOWACJI Z PERSPEKTYWY WYBRANYCH CZYNNIKÓW I REGIONÓW

Streszczenie:
Artykuł ten podnosi kwestię ewaluacji wydajności rolnictwa, dzięki wybranym czynników. W badanym okresie czasu 2001 – 2011 i 2012, zbadaliśmy jak zmieniały się trendy rozwoju w rolnictwie. Po pierwsze, zbadaliśmy wielkość PKB w rolnictwie, liczbę pracowników, średni poziom wynagrodzeń i konkurencyjność z zagranicznymi rynkami. Następnie, zbadaliśmy wielkość produkcji rolnictwa w odniesieniu do każdego regionu Słowacji, aby pokazać efektywność każdego z nich.

Słowa kluczowe: rolnictwo, Republika Słowacji, PKB, zatrudnienie, wynagrodzenia, Michaely Index, RCA 1 Index, regiony na Słowacji

SLOVAK農業狀況從選定的指標和斯洛伐克地區視角下分析

摘要:本文涉及的農業績效評估在市場上通過選定的指標。據時期2000至11年或2012年,我們分析一下,怎麼發展趨勢農業改變。首先,我們分析在農業佔GDP的量,員工人數,平均工資和在國外市場的競爭力。然後我們根據斯洛伐克的每個區域,以顯示中,每個區域的有效性是分析農業生產的量。
關鍵詞:農業。斯洛伐克共和國。國內生產總值。就業。工資。 Michaely指數。 RCA1指數。地區斯洛伐克。


 
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