Polish Journal of Management Studies
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Bajdor P., Brzeziński S.

Abstract: Traditional marketing based on activities whose objective was to maximize the company's profit in the market through offering products or services. And in the seventies of the last century new concepts such as sustainable marketing and social marketing have appeared. However, did creation of a sustainable marketing and marketing socially engaged has been dictated by the actual changes like consumer attitudes and realities of the modern world, or perhaps both of these ideas were a response to the so-called. "Aging product" which is the traditional marketing? This article tries to answer this theory. Based on the conducted literature research, it should be possible to precisely define the concept of sustainable marketing and Cause Related Marketing with respect to traditional marketing.  .

Key words:
marketing, sustainable marketing, cause related marketing, corporate social responsibility.


The phenomena of marketing occurred when the manufacturer has produced a product desired by buyers because, they found that the product meets they (buyers) certain needs. It can be assumed that the marketing phenomenon has been created at the same time when the wheel was invented - the product that caused present societies
life much easier. The case of the wheel was citied, as it is a product which invention and creation, not only contributed to the change of life, but was written on the pages of history. Marketing is a phenomenon which accompanies company since the start of its business. The company wanting to stay in business and continue to develop, is forced to adapt to the needs of society and offer a product that meets those needs. It can be assumed that even in the first form of exchange, which was barter [1], marketing took a place as well.   
Marketing refers to the activities of the company, which aim is to create a certain value and then pass it to the customer. In this sense, marketing plays a very important role in achieving the strategic goals of a company or organization. Any customer deciding to purchase a product or service, undertake this decision on the basis of one or more reasons [2], the task of marketing is to convince him to make the decision to purchase a certain product or service. This task requires very deep knowledge of consumer behavior, cooperation and the ability to adapt the company to the needs of the consumer, in order to provide them desired goods and products. With its wide range, marketing is an essential tool for any company operating at the market. Marketing is not a tool used only by professionals but also by other employees, who are determined to achieve the objectives of the organization, such as the sale of products or determine the strategy of the entire company [3].
One of the most popular marketing
s definition is one presented by P. Kotler: „marketing is a social and managerial process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating and exchanging products and value with others” [4]. This definition says that marketing is a part of the business for which the company is acquiring new customers. Along with innovation, marketing, is one of the two most important functions of the enterprise. Similar definition was created by American Marketing Institute:„marketing is the management process responsible for identifying, anticipating and satisfying customer requirements profitably” [5]. Over the years, marketings definition has been extended by the statement that „the objective of strategic marketing is to achieve sustainable competitive advantage” [6]. Despite, that there was no „buyer” word in given definitions, it „competition” word underlines the essence of its presence, because buyer, through his choice, decides that company could get an advantage over the others.
Also in Poland, marketing has become a subject of research and careful analysis. As a result of these processes, three most popular definitions were formulated. One of them, given by J. Altkorn, says that marketing can be interpreted in two ways [7]:
- Traditional interpretation - in this sense is synonymous with marketing activities designed to support the sales process. These actions can be more or less sophisticated methods and techniques that affect the customer, such as advertising or promotion,
- Modern interpretation
in this approach marketing is regarded as a principle whose main purpose is to satisfy the customer requirements. However, in this case, it becomes very difficult to determine marketing uniform, causing a multiplicity of definitions of marketing.
The second definition is the definition given by T. Sztucki: "Marketing is not a collection of theoretical laws, theorems and sophisticated rules. It is a generalized experience of practical ways to conduct hundreds of thousands of companies that received marketing efforts and gain a competitive advantage and success in domestic and international economic competition”[8]. This definition, in spite of his years (presented in 1992) is still very timely and fully captures the essence of marketing. However, the definition given by Rutkowski, Garbarski and Wrzosek defines marketing as the intentional conduct on the market, based on an integrated set of tools and activities and market orientation [9]. From the above definition, it appears that it is intentional conduct, characterized by permanent features, which are based on multiple instruments (advertising, promotion, distribution, price and product) and actions (which has reflected certain activities, so that you can have a certain impact on the market) forming a set of integrated character [9].
All commercial activities, whether in small businesses, big companies or international corporations were preceded by even more refined and more expensive marketing campaigns. In order to plan effective campaigns for promotion and advertising, a number of research   and   development   centers   and   institutes   specialized   in   this   type   of   activities   were involved. Careful observers in this domain could get the impression that marketing activities left   behind   the   final   stage   of   product   or   service   development [10].
Marketing, at present, is a very popular field of science, which causes that there are many definitions concerning its essence. However, marketing is primarily seen as a set of processes whose main objective is to identify consumer needs, create a product corresponding to these needs, and then to sell it and make a profit.
Marketing is not one action or process, marketing occurs in virtually all areas of the company, which to a greater or lesser extent, are related to the introduction of a product or service on the market and their sales. Also, do not forget that it is also a marketing communications company with the environment, cooperation with competitors as well as sponsorship and assistance provided by the company.
Initially, marketing was used only by the action of the company, whose main aim was to increase market share and achieve high financial returns. However, over the years, with marketing tools organizations have also started to use a non-profit or charitable organizations. This meant that the next to traditional marketing concepts has developed sustainable marketing or cause related marketing, which are presented later in this article.

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Based on the literature study it can be concluded that the traditional marketing now accounts as a ground on which sustainable marketing or CRM is based. While in the case of sustainable marketing, we can speak here of the kind of independent, in the case of marketing, socially involved, it should be treated as a tool for sustainable marketing. As already implied by the same name - the essence of sustainable marketing is the area of its operation, covering all dimensions of sustainable development - economic, social and environmental. However, CRM can be a marketing tool used in achieving its goals. Because as its name suggests, it focuses primarily on the social dimension, and in economic terms takes into account the achievement of the purposes of the company only. Here, of course, we can assumed that sustainable marketing can be understood on a par with the cause-related marketing. But the broad area of sustainable marketing suggests that it includes not only cause-related marketing but also social marketing and CSR. In addition, the starting point of sustainable marketing was not only the sustainable development conception but also changes in consumers
attitudes, which companys "to be or not to be" depends on.


[1]. Barter – Exchange when some certain goods or products are exchanged only, i.e. tailor offered a coat to the baker and received a bread in turn. This kind of trade had been taking place before the money had been invented and introduced..
[2]. Kot S., Dima I.C., Man M., “Use of Abraham Maslow’s motivation Theory for setting consumers’ satisfaction-non-satisfaction”, Polish Journal of Management Studies, Vol. 2/2010, p. 146
[3]. Silk A.J., „What is Marketing?”, Harvard Business School Publishing Corporation, Harvard 2006, p. 5
[4]. Kotler P., Armstrong G., Harker M., Brennan r., “Marketing. An Introduction”, Pearson Education Limited, UK 2009, p. 6
[5]. Mercer D., „Marketing”, Blackwell Publisher, Oxford 2006, p. 12
[6]. Wensley R., „Strategic Marketing: A review”, Butterworth Marketing, London 2004, p. 142
[7]. Alkorn J., “Podstawy marketing”, Instytut Marketingu, Kraków 2006, s. 23.
[8]. Sztucki T., “Marketing. Sposób myślenia, system działania”, Agencja Wydawnicza Palcet, Warszawa 1992, s. 40.
[9]. Garbarski L., Rutkowski I., Wrzosek W., „Marketing. Punkt zwrotny nowoczesnej firmy”, PWE, Warszawa 2000, s. 29.
[10]. Brzeziński S., „Marketing activity and global crisis”, w: Marketing a Marketingova komunikacia, red. Ferencova M., Presov University, 2011.
[11]. Fair-Trade is the name of the certification system in order to obtain a certificate, the product must be manufactured according to meet a number of specified criteria, such as operation of crops in accordance with the concept of sustainable development.
[12]. Hunt s.H., “Sustainable marketing, equity, and economic growth: a resource-advantage, economic freedom approach”, Elsevier Ltd, Academy of Marketing Science 2010, s. 89
[13]. Kotler P., Armstrong G., „Principles of marketing”, Pearson Education, New Jersey 2010.
[14]. Butoracova-Sindelryova I., Stefko R., “Social-Demographic Aspects of Marketing Theory Implementation into the Project Management Praxis”, in: Stefko R., Frankovsky M., “Management 2008. In times of global change and uncertainty”, University of Presov, Presov 2008.
[15]. Dacko S.G., „The Advanced dictionary of marketing: putting theory to use”, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2008.
[16]. Kerrigan F., „Film marketing”, Elsevier Ltd, Oxford 2010.
[17]. Bowie D., Buttle F., „Hospitality marketing: an introduction”, Elsevier Ltd, Oxford 2004.
[18]. Kotler P., Lee N.R., “Social marketing: influencing behaviors for good”,  in: Wymer W., “Rethinking the boundaries of social marketing: Activism or Advertising?”, Journal of Business Research, Elsevier 2010.
[19]. Kotler P., “Social marketing in 21st century”, in: Wymer W., “Rethinking the boundaries of social marketing: Activism or Advertising?”, Journal of Business Research, Elsevier 2010.
[20]. American energy company that for many years falsify their accounts, went bankrupt in 2001, becoming the hero of the largest scandal in the American economy.
[21]. British Petroleum - an international oil company, leak from its platforms in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010, was the largest environmental disaster caused by 5 mln oil spill into the water. Leak has caused huge damage to the flora and fauna.
[22]. Walther J., „Cause-related marketing – relevance and application in British Cancer Charities”, Grin, UK 2010, s. 1
[23]. Adkins S., “Cause related marketing”, Butterworth-Heinemann, NJ 2000, s. 11
[24]. Clutterbuck D., Dearlove D., „The interim manager:a New career model for the experienced manager”, Financial Times Pittman, NJ 1996, s.123
[25]. Pringle H., Thompson M, „Brand spilit: how cause related marketing builds Brand”, Wiley&Sons, UK 2001, s. 16
[26]. Andreasen A., „Ethics in social marketing”, Georgetown University Press, US 2006, s. 78
[27]. Kurtz D.L. „Services Marketing”, Wiley&ons, UK 2008, s. 44
[28]. So called „warm-glow” – the feeling which appears in the moment of purchase which is moralny justified, i.e, buying a bot tle of water – in Sudan wells are being built.
[29]. Varadarajan R. P., Menon A., “Cause related marketing – A coalignment of marketing strategy and corporate philanthropy”, Journal of Marketing 7/1988, s. 60.


Streszczenie: Marketing tradycyjny opierał się na działaniach, których celem była maksymalizacja zysku przedsiębiorstwa oferującego na rynku produkty lub usługi. Jednakże w latach 70-tych ubiegłego wieku pojawiły się pojęcia takie jak: marketing zrównoważony i marketing społecznie zaangażowany. Jednakże czy powstanie marketingu zrównoważonego czy marketingu społecznie zaangażowanego było podyktowane faktycznymi zmianami (postawa konsumentów czy realia współczesnego świata), czy może obie te koncepcje były odpowiedzią na tzw. „starzenie się produktu”, jakim jest marketing tradycyjny? Na tak postawioną tezę próbuje odpowiedzieć niniejszy artykuł. Na podstawie przeprowadzonych badań literaturowych, możliwe stanie się dokładne określenie koncepcji marketingu zrównoważonego i marketingu społecznie zaangażowanego w odniesieniu do marketingu tradycyjnego.

Słowa kluczowe: marketing, marketing zrównoważony, marketing społecznie zaangażowany, społeczna odpowiedzialność biznesu

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