Polish Journal of Management Studies
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Abstracts > Vol 10.2

Özen Kutanis R., Ardıç K., Uslu O., Karakiraz A.

Abstract: In this study it is aimed to point out the interrelationships between emotional intelligence, trust to manager and fear based silence from the point of employees. A sample of 157 health personnel from different professions working in a dental clinic was included to the research. According to findings, there is a positive and significant relationship between employees emotional intelligence and their trust to manager. Also the negative insignificant relationship between emotional intelligence and fear based silence and the positive insignificant relationship between employees trust to manager and fear based silence were found. At the end of the study suggestions are made to the practitioners and future researchers. A part of this study was presented in 3 rd Multidisciplinary Academic Conference in Prague 2014.

Key words:
emotional intelligence, employee silence, fear based silence, organizational trust, health personnel

It has been emphasized trust has a considerable effect on the quality of relationships between subordinates and superiors, and especially between individuals in organization (Derin, 2011). In literature trust to managers as
a dimension of organizational trust is analyzed within the context of interperson
al trust (Koç and Yazıcıoğlu, 2011). Trust to manager defined as “subordinates voluntarily exposing to managers uncontrolled behaviors and actions” (Mayer et al., 1995). According to another definition trust to manager is stated as subordinates belief that superior will keep his/her promises, will behave consistently and fairly and will answer clearly and accurately (Reinke and Baldwin, 2001). It is also stated that trust process must be initiated by managers (İslamoğlu et al., 2007; Arı, 2003) because of the reason, trust to manager is attributed to whole organization by employees (Tan and Tan, 2000). Mc Allister (1995) states there is a relationship between the interaction frequency of employee-manager and employees level of trust to manager. Interaction frequency means communication, but the quality of communication between employee and manager is also important as well as it exists. Employee is able to express himself/herself obviously and easily when communication is qualified and healthy. But sometimes employees choose to withhold their ideas, opinions and concerns about organizational issues (Pinder and Harlos, 2001; Morrison and Milliken, 2000). This phenomenon is called employee silence. Character of relationship between employee and manager is an important factor affecting employee silence (Lu and Xie, 2013). Three motives (resignation, fear and cooperation) are identified that underlie employee silence (Dyne et al., 2003; Vlăduțescu, 2014). As a result of these motives, three types of silence may occur. Resignation motive can cause acquiescent silence, while cooperation motive can cause proactive silence. And with fear motive, employees are inclined to exhibit defensive silence (self-protective and based on fear). Dyne et al. (2003) defined defensive silence (fear based silence) as “withholding ideas, information or opinions as form of self-protection, based on fear”.
Emotions play an important role on individuals
work life as well as on their daily life and social relationships. Emotional intelligence as a notion which was initially and clearly put forward by Salovey and Mayer (1990) has been handled as a sub subject of social intelligence along history (Weng, 2008; Salovey and Mayer, 1990). Emotional intelligence is defined by Goleman (1996) as “being aware of ones own feelings and reading others emotions effectively. In simple manner emotional intelligence can be expressed as using emotions cleverly” (Satija and Khan, 2013). Interest in emotions and emotional intelligence role on organization atmosphere is growing every passing day (Saathoff, 2009; Satija and Khan, 2013). In many studies it is stated employees with high emotional intelligence are more successful to overcome necessities related to work (Bar-On, 2002; in Karimi et al., 2014). Emotional intelligence is essential for work performance, leadership (Drogalea and Cotirlea, 2011) and emotional and physical health (Humphrey, 2013).
In this study it is aimed to find out the interrelationships among emotional intelligence, fear based silence and trust to manager. Three motives have been effective in carrying out this study. First, trust as an important phonemenon for individuals and organizations should be associated
with all recent variables (emotional intelligence, silence, engagement, etc.), because trust theory has not reached a holistic structure yet (Arı, 2003). Second, whereas there are researches handled the relationship between emotional intelligence and trust to manager from the point of managers or leaders, there is a lack of research which handled this relationship from the point of employees. Third, there is no research in literature which examines this three variables together even all are essential for individuals and organizations. For this purpose a quantitative research was planned in a dental clinic in İstanbul. By carrying out this research it was aimed to make contribution to literature and health management field.

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Discussion and Conclusions
In this study, interrelationships among emotional intelligence, trust to manager and fear based silence were analyzed. For this purpose, a research was conducted in
a dental clinic in Istanbul. Three hypotheses were generated on the basis of related literature. As a result of testing these hypothesis; there is a positive and weak but insignificant relationship between trust to manager and fear based silence. This finding seems contradictory to literature, but in this sample cultural factors might play a significant role. In collectivist cultures, employees can respect to their managers or bosses even though they fear from them. This can explain the positive but weak relationship between trust to manager and employee silence. Also
a positive and significant relationship between emotional intelligence and trust to manager was determined. As a support, Barczak et al. (2010) detected
a relationship between emotional intelligence and team trust. Furthermore, Sidiqui and Hassan (2013) stated; emotionally intelligent employees can regulate their own behaviors. As a result we can suggest that emotionally intelligent employees can attribute their managers
untrustworthy and harsh behaviors to external factors more. It means they have ability to make a distinction between their managers personality and the situation their managers serve. So they may handle their relationship with their managers in a more trust based frame. Another finding of this study is the negative relationship between emotional intelligence and fear based silence. Although this relationship supports the literature in terms of direction but was not found statistically significant. This finding may emerged due to small sample size. If enough sample size was obtained, the result would be more statistically significant. It is the evidence that emotional intelligence is an outstanding factor in creating trust climate in workplace, it can be suggested to practitioners to take into account emotional intelligence of employee candidates during the selection process. In further studies, fear based silence and trust to manager can be analyzed via other positive organizational behavior variables (i.e. well-being, resilience, engagement etc.). Also these variables can be tested with bigger samples for different organizational settings. More complex methods (i.e. Structural Equation Model) can be applied to data to uncover the prospective relationships among these variables.

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Inteligencja emocjonalna, CISZA oparta na lęku

Streszczenie: Niniejsze badanie ma na celu zwrócenie uwagi na wzajemne powiązania pomiędzy inteligencją emocjonalną, zaufaniem do kierownika i ciszy opartej na lęku
z punktu widzenia pracowników. Do badań włączona została próba składająca się z 157 pracowników służby zdrowia różnych zawodów pracujących w klinice dentystycznej. Według ustaleń istnieje pozytywna i znacząca zależność pomiędzy inteligencją emocjonalną pracowników i ich zaufaniem do kierownika. Istnieje również negatywna nieznaczna zależność pomiędzy inteligencją emocjonalną a ciszą opartą na lęku
i pozytywna nieznaczna zależność pomiędzy zaufaniem pracowników do kierownika i ciszą opartą na lęku. Na końcu badania zamieszczone zostały sugestie dla praktyków i przyszłych badaczy

Słowa kluczowe:
Inteligencja emocjonalna, cisza pracownika, cisza oparta na lęku, zaufanie organizacyjne, pracownicy służby zdrowia

情绪智力、 和平基于恐惧和信任关系管理器: 个案研究



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