EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE, FEAR BASED SILENCE
AND TRUST TO MANAGER: A CASE STUDY
Özen Kutanis R., Ardıç K., Uslu O., Karakiraz A.
Abstract: In this study it is aimed to point out the interrelationships between emotional intelligence, trust to manager and fear based silence from the point of employees. A sample of 157 health personnel from different professions working in a dental clinic was included to the research. According to findings, there is a positive and significant relationship between employees’ emotional intelligence and their trust to manager. Also the negative insignificant relationship between emotional intelligence and fear based silence and the positive insignificant relationship between employees’ trust to manager and fear based silence were found. At the end of the study suggestions are made to the practitioners and future researchers. A part of this study was presented in 3 rd Multidisciplinary Academic Conference in Prague 2014.
Key words: emotional intelligence, employee silence, fear based silence, organizational trust, health personnel
It has been emphasized trust has a considerable effect on the quality of relationships between subordinates and superiors, and especially between individuals in organization (Derin, 2011). In literature trust to managers as
a dimension of organizational trust is analyzed within the context of interpersonal trust (Koç and Yazıcıoğlu, 2011). Trust to manager defined as “subordinate’s voluntarily exposing to manager’s uncontrolled behaviors and actions” (Mayer et al., 1995). According to another definition trust to manager is stated as subordinate’s belief that superior will keep his/her promises, will behave consistently and fairly and will answer clearly and accurately (Reinke and Baldwin, 2001). It is also stated that trust process must be initiated by managers (İslamoğlu et al., 2007; Arı, 2003) because of the reason, trust to manager is attributed to whole organization by employees (Tan and Tan, 2000). Mc Allister (1995) states there is a relationship between the interaction frequency of employee-
Emotions play an important role on individuals
In this study it is aimed to find out the interrelationships among emotional intelligence, fear based silence and trust to manager. Three motives have been effective in carrying out this study. First, trust as an important phonemenon for individuals and organizations should be associated
Discussion and Conclusions
In this study, interrelationships among emotional intelligence, trust to manager and fear based silence were analyzed. For this purpose, a research was conducted in
a dental clinic in Istanbul. Three hypotheses were generated on the basis of related literature. As a result of testing these hypothesis; there is a positive and weak but insignificant relationship between trust to manager and fear based silence. This finding seems contradictory to literature, but in this sample cultural factors might play a significant role. In collectivist cultures, employees can respect to their managers or bosses even though they fear from them. This can explain the positive but weak relationship between trust to manager and employee silence. Also
a positive and significant relationship between emotional intelligence and trust to manager was determined. As a support, Barczak et al. (2010) detected
a relationship between emotional intelligence and team trust. Furthermore, Sidiqui and Hassan (2013) stated; emotionally intelligent employees can regulate their own behaviors. As a result we can suggest that emotionally intelligent employees can attribute their managers’ untrustworthy and harsh behaviors to external factors more. It means they have ability to make a distinction between their managers’ personality and the situation their managers serve. So they may handle their relationship with their managers in a more trust based frame. Another finding of this study is the negative relationship between emotional intelligence and fear based silence. Although this relationship supports the literature in terms of direction but was not found statistically significant. This finding may emerged due to small sample size. If enough sample size was obtained, the result would be more statistically significant. It is the evidence that emotional intelligence is an outstanding factor in creating trust climate in workplace, it can be suggested to practitioners to take into account emotional intelligence of employee candidates during the selection process. In further studies, fear based silence and trust to manager can be analyzed via other positive organizational behavior variables (i.e. well-
Anari N.N., 2011, Teachers: Emotional Intelligence, Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment, “Journal of Workplace Learning”, 24.
Austin E.J., Saklofske D.H., Egan V., 2005, Personality, Well-
Barczak G., Lassk F., Mulki J., 2010, Antecedents of Team Creativity: an Examination of Team Emotional Intelligence, Team Trust and Collaborative Culture, “Creativity and Innovation Management”, 19.
Carmeli A., 2003, The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Work Attitudes, Behavior and Outcomes, “Journal of Managerial Psychology”, 18.
Chin S.T.S., Anantharaman R.N., Tong D.Y.K., 2011, Emotional Intelligence and Organizational Citizenship Behaviour of Manufacturing Employees: An Analysis, “Management”, 6.
Derin N., 2011, İşletmelerde Geride Kalan Sendromu ve Örgütsel Güven, Nobel Yayıncılık, Ankara.
Dragolea L., Cotirlea D., 2011, Issues Concerning the Interferences and Similarities Between Management, Emotional Intelligence and Leadership, “Polish Journal of Management Studies”, 4.
Dyne L.V., Ang S., Botero I.C., 2003, Conceptualizing Employee Silence and Employee Voice as Multidimensional Constructs, “Journal of Management Studies”, 40.
Erdem F., Aytemur J.Ö., 2009, Türk iş örgütlerinin sosyal sermaye birikimini geliştirmede belirleyici unsur olan güvenin anlaşılmasına yönelik özgün bir ölçek geliştirme projesi. Proje No: 107K548, Antalya.
Field M.P., 2010, An Investigation of the Moderating Effect of Emotional Intelligence on Attitudes towards Work and Family, Submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy under the Executive Committee of the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, Columbia University.
Goleman D., 1996, Emotional Intelligence: Why it can Matter More Than IQ, London, Bloomsbury.
Humprey R.H., 2013, The Benefits of Emotional Intelligence and Empathy to Entrepreneurship, “Entrepreneurship Research Journal”, 3.
İslamoğlu G., Birsel M., Börü D., 2007, Kurum İçinde Güven, İnkılap Kitabevi, İstanbul.
Jordan P.J., Ashkanasy N.M., Hartel C.E.J., Hooper G.S., 2002, Workgroup Emotional Intelligence Scale Development and Relationship to Team Process Effectiveness and Goal Focus, “Human Resource Management Review”, 12.
Jordan P.J., Lawrence S.A., 2009, Emotional Intelligence in Teams: Development and Initial Validation of the Short Version of the Workgroup Emotional Intelligence Profile WEIP-
Kafetsios K., Zampetakis L.A., 2008, Emotional Intelligence and Job Satisfaction: Testing the Mediatory Role of Positive and Negative Affect at Work, “Personality and Individual Differences”, 44.
Karimi L., Leggat S.G., Donohue L., Farrell G., Couper G.E., 2014, Emotional Rescue: The Role of Emotional Intelligence and Emotional Labour on Well Being and Job-
Kiyani K., Saher N., Saleem S., Iqbal M., 2013, Emotional Intelligence and Employee Outcomes: The Mediating Effect of Authentic Leadership Style, “Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business”, 5.
Koç H., Yazıcıoğlu İ., 2011, Yöneticiye Duyulan Güven ile İş Tatmini Arasındaki İlişki: Kamu ve Özel Sektör Karşılaştırması, “Doğuş Üniversitesi Dergisi”, 12.
Lee H.J., 2013, The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Altruism among South Korean Central Government Officials, “Social Behavior and Personality”, 41.
Lopes P.N., Grewal D., Kadis J., Gall M., Salovey P., 2006, Evidence that Emotional Intelligence is Related to Job Performance and Affect and Attitudes at Work, “Psicothema”, 18.
Lu J., Xie X., 2013, Research on Employee Silence Behavior: A Review based on Chinese Family Enterprise, “Asian Social Science”, 9.
Mayer R., Davis J.H., Schoorman F.D., 1995, An Integrative Model of Organizational Trust, “Academy of Management Review”, 20.
McAllister D.J., 1995, Affect and Cognition Based Trust as Foundations for Interpersonal Cooperation in Organizations, “Academy of Management Journal”, 38.
Milliken F.J.E., Morrison W., Hewlin P.F., 2003, An Exploratory Study of Employee Silence: Issues that Employees don’t communicate upward and why, “Journal of Management Studies”, 40.
Morrison E.W., Milliken F.J., 2000, Organizational Silence: A Barrier to Change and Development in a Pluralistic World, “Academy of Management Review”, 25.
Nikolaou I., Vakola M., Bourantas D., 2011, The Role of Silence on Employees’ Attitudes the Day After a Merger, “Personnel Review”, 40.
Pinder C.C., Harlos K.P., 2001, Employee Silence: Quiescence and Acquiescence as Responses to Perceived Injustice, “Reserach in Personnel and Human Resources Management”, 20.
Reinke S.J., Baldwin J.N., 2001, Is Anybody Listening? Performance Evaluation Feedback in the U.S. Air Force, “Journal of Political and Military Sociology”, 29.
Saathoff K.I., 2009, Adapting the Supervisor Styles: The Moderating Role of Employee Emotional Intelligence on Organizational Citizenship Behavior, Master Thesis presented to University of Nebraska.
Salovey P., Mayer J.D., 1990, Emotional Intelligence, “Imagination, Cognition, and Personality”, 9.
Satija S., Khan W., 2013, Emotional Intelligence as Predictor of Occupational Stress among Working Professionals, “A Peer Reviewed Research Journal”, 15.
Siddiqui R.S., Hassan A., 2013, Impact of Emotional Intelligence on Employees Turnover Rate in FMCG organizations, “Pakistan Journal of Commerce and Social Sciences”, 7.
Silvia P.J., 2002, Self-
Tan H.H., Tan C.S.F., 2000, Toward the Differentiation of Trust in Supervisor and Trust in Organization, “Genetic, Social and General Psychology Monographs”, 162.
Vlăduțescu Ș., 2014, Silence as an Uncertainty Communicational Inductor, "International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences", 13
Weng H.C., 2008, Does the Physician’s Emotional Intelligence Matter? Impacts of the Physician’s Emotional Intelligence on the Trust, Patient–Physician Relationship, and Satisfaction, “Health Care Management Review”, 33.
Wong C.S., Law K.S., 2002, The Effects of Leader and Follower Emotional Intelligence on Performance and Attitude: An Exploratory Study, “Leadership Quarterly”, 13.
Xiaotwao Z., Jianglin K., Jintao S., Xingshan Z., 2008, Survey on Employee Silence and the Impact of Trust on it in China, “Acta Psychologia Sinica”, 40.
Inteligencja emocjonalna, CISZA oparta na lęku
I ZAUFANIE DO KIEROWNIKA: STUDIUM PRZYPADKU
Streszczenie: Niniejsze badanie ma na celu zwrócenie uwagi na wzajemne powiązania pomiędzy inteligencją emocjonalną, zaufaniem do kierownika i ciszy opartej na lęku
z punktu widzenia pracowników. Do badań włączona została próba składająca się z 157 pracowników służby zdrowia różnych zawodów pracujących w klinice dentystycznej. Według ustaleń istnieje pozytywna i znacząca zależność pomiędzy inteligencją emocjonalną pracowników i ich zaufaniem do kierownika. Istnieje również negatywna nieznaczna zależność pomiędzy inteligencją emocjonalną a ciszą opartą na lęku
i pozytywna nieznaczna zależność pomiędzy zaufaniem pracowników do kierownika i ciszą opartą na lęku. Na końcu badania zamieszczone zostały sugestie dla praktyków i przyszłych badaczy.
Słowa kluczowe: Inteligencja emocjonalna, cisza pracownika, cisza oparta na lęku, zaufanie organizacyjne, pracownicy służby zdrowia
情绪智力、 和平基于恐惧和信任关系管理器： 个案研究