ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES SECTOR – DEVELOPMENT BARRIERS AND OPPORTUNITIES
Abstract: The article presents the essence of Entrepreneurship in SME sector. First the essence of Entrepreneurship is presented and then the main characteristics of polish SME sector. In the further part of the article, barriers and opportunities, which can support or stop the further enterprise’s development, are described. At the end of the article, the main barriers are presented in more detailed way and, also, the support as well.
Key words: entrepreunership, company, SME sector, barriers, opportunities
Entrepreneurship is the distinguishing feature of human resources that can fully develop a market economy, but it is also an important factor in achieving their success, which is a measure of the profit. Individual entrepreneurship is the force that integrates diverse resources needed to run the business, use by multiplying the tangible and intangible values. Entrepreneurship is an ambiguous concept. One of the definitions of entrepreneurship as it determines the willingness and ability to take and in a creative way to solve emerging problems and the ability to adapt to changes in the environment . Stimulator of the dynamic development of entrepreneurship and the formation of small businesses are willing to take the economic risk of self is the situation on the labor market . J.A. Schumpeter is considered as the creator of the theory of entrepreneurship. He defines entrepreneurship as the process of creative destruction by which new combinations are created in the sphere of production, which is the nucleus of entrepreneurial activities. The entrepreneur still creates new economic and institutional solutions that will give better results than the existing ones. Thus, the essence of entrepreneurship is the breaking of routine and dismantling existing structures .
Frequently entrepreneurship is recognized as an innovation, implementation of new technologies, the form of the organization and the person initiating the production of all these actions is called an entrepreneur. In broad terms, entrepreneurship is regarded as a personality trait, the ability to manifest the spirit of initiative and resourcefulness, and the process which is undertaken in a wide range of activities to adapt to the rules and requirements of the market economy. Entrepreneurship can now be understood as an initiative and ingenuity, with which the company is successful in the market, an increase in utility produced and sold products and services, resource efficiency, income and creditworthiness . The main features of entrepreneurship, both individual and social, is having and multiplication of material goods, the individuality of action based on economic calculation.
Almost all definitions of entrepreneurship put emphasis on the risk that appears when new business has started, set up a new company, also, emphasize innovation, initiative, motivation and a strong appreciation for the work, profit and private property as a source of wealth in society and the individual. A classic entrepreneur has the following characteristics: knowledge, intelligence, courage, energy, creativity, ability to take a risk, responsibility, realism, foresight, self-
Entrepreneurship are inextricably linked to and associated with the person of the entrepreneur, who is not only a person undertaking an activity independently of adjustment to achieve the highest possible profit, but also introduces innovative solutions and the purpose of his actions is to change the reality around him using all available resources and methods. The effect of this is to increase the efficiency of operations. Starting any project is inextricably linked with the risk but also the satisfaction in the form of profit as compensation for the incurred effort. In the narrow sense of the entrepreneur is the person who first thought of a creative way and then effectively work.
Themes affecting starting the new business can be the following :
1. Independence, the creation of job for itself, the desire to demonstrate inventiveness, get more money, etc.
2. Financial independence through investment owned or borrowed money in a specific project, in anticipation of the economic benefits
3. Taking risks what is unknown result of the project, it can deliver success (profit) or failure (loss)
The performance of the business depends not only on his personal characteristics but also on the environment in which he operates.
By P. Drucker the essence of entrepreneurship is the creation of new business ventures based on automated processes or creative imitation. He also notes that an enterprising man always searches for change, responds to it and uses as an opportunity . Both in Poland and abroad entrepreneurship is regarded as a phenomenon essential for economic and social development. Much of the authors' definition of entrepreneurship considers the nature of the exploration and use of opportunities and create innovative solutions. Entrepreneurship is thus a kind of act of creation, and at the time of its completion, it ends up as a real enterprise.
Entrepreneurship creates opportunities for better use of existing resources, it is also an important adjustment mechanism in the market. It adapts to changes in the market offer demand, determines the directions in which the market is following. Entrepreneurship promotes more flexible rigid structures of large enterprises. It also plays a large role in shaping the market equilibrium, it is constantly searching for new factors. Some scholars point out that it cannot be clearly linked to the development of entrepreneurship and this is due to the fact that entrepreneurship can take many forms and play different roles . There is also a belief that the behavior of the primarily affected by conditions in the economy. In other words, a system in which the entrepreneur operates directed its activity.
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PRZEDSIĘBIORCZOŚĆ W PRZEDSIĘBIORSTWACH Z SEKTORA MSP – BARIERY I MOŻLIWOŚCI ROZWOJU
Streszczenie: Artykuł prezentuje istotę przedsiębiorczości w sektorze MSP. Na początku przedstawiona jest istota przedsiębiorczości a następnie scharakteryzowane zostały cechy polskiego sektora MSP. W dalszej części artykułu przedstawione zostały bariery i możliwości, które mogą wspierać lub wstrzymać przyszły rozwój przedsiębiorstw. na zakończenie artykułu zaprezentowane zostały bardziej szczegółowo, zarówno główne bariery jak i możliwości rozwoju.
Słowa kluczowe: przedsiębiorczość, przedsiębiorstwa, bariery, rozwój, sektor MSP