Polish Journal of Management Studies
 ISSN 2081-7452
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Abstracts > Vol 7

Okwiet B.

Abstract: The article presents the essence of Entrepreneurship in SME sector. First the essence of Entrepreneurship is presented and then the main characteristics of polish SME sector. In the further part of the article, barriers and opportunities, which can support or stop the further enterprises development, are described. At the end of the article, the main barriers are presented in more detailed way and, also, the support as well.  

Key words:
entrepreunership, company, SME sector, barriers, opportunities


Entrepreneurship is the distinguishing feature of human resources that can fully develop a market economy, but it is also an important factor in achieving their success, which is a measure of the profit. Individual entrepreneurship is the force that integrates diverse resources needed to run the business, use by multiplying the tangible and intangible values. Entrepreneurship is an ambiguous concept. One of the definitions of entrepreneurship as it determines the willingness and ability to take and in a creative way to solve emerging problems and the ability to adapt to changes in the environment [1]. Stimulator of the dynamic development of entrepreneurship and the formation of small businesses are willing to take the economic risk of self is the situation on the labor market [2]. J.A. Schumpeter is considered as the creator of the theory of entrepreneurship. He defines entrepreneurship as the process of creative destruction by which new combinations are created in the sphere of production, which is the nucleus of entrepreneurial activities. The entrepreneur still creates new economic and institutional solutions that will give better results than the existing ones. Thus, the essence of entrepreneurship is the breaking of routine and dismantling existing structures [3].
Frequently entrepreneurship is recognized as an innovation, implementation of new technologies, the form of the organization and the person initiating the production of all these actions is called an entrepreneur. In broad terms, entrepreneurship is regarded as a personality trait, the ability to manifest the spirit of initiative and resourcefulness, and the process which is undertaken in a wide range of activities to adapt to the rules and requirements of the market economy. Entrepreneurship can now be understood as an initiative and ingenuity, with which the company is successful in the market, an increase in utility produced and sold products and services, resource efficiency, income and creditworthiness [4]. The main features of entrepreneurship, both individual and social, is having and multiplication of material goods, the individuality of action based on economic calculation.
Almost all definitions of entrepreneurship put emphasis on the risk that appears when new business has started, set up a new company, also, emphasize innovation, initiative, motivation and a strong appreciation for the work, profit and private property as a source of wealth in society and the individual. A classic entrepreneur has the following characteristics: knowledge, intelligence, courage, energy, creativity, ability to take a risk, responsibility, realism, foresight, self-control, the integration of people, etc.[5]
Entrepreneurship are inextricably linked to and associated with the person of the entrepreneur, who is not only a person undertaking an activity independently of adjustment to achieve the highest possible profit, but also introduces innovative solutions and the purpose of his actions is to change the reality around him using all available resources and methods. The effect of this is to increase the efficiency of operations. Starting any project is inextricably linked with the risk but also the satisfaction in the form of profit as compensation for the incurred effort. In the narrow sense of the entrepreneur is the person who first thought of a creative way and then effectively work.
Themes affecting starting the new business can be the following [6]:
1. Independence, the creation of job for itself, the desire to demonstrate inventiveness, get more money, etc.
2. Financial independence through investment owned or borrowed money in a specific project, in anticipation of the economic benefits
3. Taking risks what is unknown result of the project, it can deliver success (profit) or failure (loss)
The performance of the business depends not only on his personal characteristics but also on the environment in which he operates.
By P. Drucker the essence of entrepreneurship is the creation of new business ventures based on automated processes or creative imitation. He also notes that an enterprising man always searches for change, responds to it and uses as an opportunity [7]. Both in Poland and abroad entrepreneurship is regarded as a phenomenon essential for economic and social development. Much of the authors' definition of entrepreneurship considers the nature of the exploration and use of opportunities and create innovative solutions. Entrepreneurship is thus a kind of act of creation, and at the time of its completion, it ends up as a real enterprise.
Entrepreneurship creates opportunities for better use of existing resources, it is also an important adjustment mechanism in the market. It adapts to changes in the market offer demand, determines the directions in which the market is following. Entrepreneurship promotes more flexible rigid structures of large enterprises. It also plays a large role in shaping the market equilibrium, it is constantly searching for new factors. Some scholars point out that it cannot be clearly linked to the development of entrepreneurship and this is due to the fact that entrepreneurship can take many forms and play different roles [8]. There is also a belief that the behavior of the primarily affected by conditions in the economy. In other words, a system in which the entrepreneur operates directed its activity.

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Self-employment is becoming increasingly common form of employment, in this day and age to get a permanent contract does not guarantee a calm and very low wages, make that more and more people are thinking and start their own business. Despite that, self employed means being at work 24 hours a day and raising a huge responsibility, it is often satisfaction with the outcome to be huge. It can be assumed that permanent work does not provide so much excitement and confidence like own company. It should be noted that in any study, surveyed entrepreneurs are not mentioned lack of time, nerves and stress as barriers to running own business. The only barriers are the obstacles caused by the activities of state and government. You can then conclude that it is sufficient that the state will regulate the rules, introduce clear and transparent rules for setting up and running own business, and opened businesses should grow by leaps and bounds. Owning the business is a huge responsibility but also gives a sense of great satisfaction and pride of goal attainment.


[1]. Barter – Exchange when some certain goods or products are exchanged only, i.e. tailor offered a coat to the baker and received a bread in turn. This kind of trade had been taking place before the money had been invented and introduced..
[2]. Samuelson P.A., Nordhaus W.D., „Ekonomia”, PWN, Warszawa 2006, p. 86-92
[3]. Piasecki R., „Ekonomia Rozwoju”, PWE, Warszawa 2007 p. 106-107
[4]. http://www.wsap.edu.pl/biurokarier
[5]. Sztucki T., „Rynek konsumenta”, PWE, Warszawa 2002, p. 128
[6]. Strużyński M., „Przedsiębiorstwo a rynek”, PWE, Warszawa 2003, p. 45
[7]. Sobczyk G., „Funkcjonowanie małych firm w warunkach zmian systemowych”, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej, Lublin 2005, p.11
[8]. Drucker P.F., „Innowacja i przedsiębiorczość. Praktyka i zasady.”, PWE, Warszawa 2002, p. 30
[9]. Tołoczko A., Kuchlewski T., Sadowski T., Świderski G., „Fundusze pomocowe UE. Dotacje dla każdego w okresie 2007-2013”, Provent Investment, 2008, p. 226
[10]. http://ec.europa.eu
[11]. Kaliszuk A, Tarnawa A., „Programy wsparcia dla małych i średnich przedsiębiorstw”, Warszawa 2008, p. 12
[12]. Based on „Działalność przedsiębiorstw niefinansowych w 2009”, GUS 2010, p. 23.
[13]. Kantorowicz J., Żuk D., „Jak uwolnić przedsiębiorczość w Polsce”, Millward Brown SMG/KRC, Warszawa 2010, p. 6,
[14]. Huttmanova E., Kiselakova D., „Support of Entrepreneurship of Small and Medium Enterprises Through Financial Resources from EU Funds”, Polish Journal of Management Studies, vol. 1/2010.
[15]. Doing Business 2010, The World Bank 2010, p. 34.
[16]. Mrozińska M., „Przedsiębiorcza Polka na wyspach”, Cooltura Magazine, 6/2010, p. 24
[17]. Kantorowicz J., Żuk D., „Jak uwolnić przedsiębiorczość w Polsce”, Millward Brown SMG/KRC, Warszawa 2010, p. 26
[18]. Zasiadły K., Guliński J., „Inkubator Przedsiębiorczości Akademickiej. Podręcznik dla organizatorów i pracowników”, Stowarzyszenie Organizatorów Ośrodków Innowacji w Polsce”, Warszawa 2009, p. 19
[19]. Kaliszuk A., Tarnawa A., „Programy wsparcia dla małych i średnich przedsiębiorstw”, Warszawa 2008, p. 14-18.
[20]. „Przedsiębiorczość w Polsce”, Ministerstwo Gospodarki, Warszawa 2010, p. 114.


Artykuł prezentuje istotę przedsiębiorczości w sektorze MSP. Na początku przedstawiona jest istota przedsiębiorczości a następnie scharakteryzowane zostały cechy polskiego sektora MSP. W dalszej części artykułu przedstawione zostały bariery i możliwości, które mogą wspierać lub wstrzymać przyszły rozwój przedsiębiorstw. na zakończenie artykułu zaprezentowane zostały bardziej szczegółowo, zarówno główne bariery jak i możliwości rozwoju.

Słowa kluczowe: przedsiębiorczość, przedsiębiorstwa, bariery, rozwój, sektor MSP

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