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INTERNATIONAL POLICY FRAMEWORK

Abstracts > Vol 6

INTERNATIONAL POLICY FRAMEWORK
Zawwar I., Munankarmi  S.


Abstract: The study of International Relation (IR) can be traced back to the 17th century, since then IR has been dominated by informal trans-governmental and trans-national relations between counties. This paper defines an International Policy Framework in light of theories such as New Institutional Economics and Spatial Economics, whereby economies can enhance their export income and societal benefits.  States can facilitate growing their economic pie; expanding access to wealth. Concurrently they can increase their tax base and enhance their ability to deliver quality public services.  After establishing a general understanding of the macroeconomic activities within an economy, the theory of comparative advantage has been defined to validate sector-specific openness whereby trading partners can benefit mutually.   Finally an Input/Output model is used to evaluate the economic activities and a general framework is established defining key steps for identifying and implementing successful IRs.

Keywords: International Relations, International Policy, Country Partnership Policy, International Partnership Framework, Economic Partnership Framework, International Development.


Introduction
Communication The history of International Relations (IR) can be traced back to the Peace of Westphalia of 1648, wherein state system was developed [15].  However, the theory of IR was not developed until after World War I. In addition to contemporary theories of liberal internationalism, Marxism has been a foundation of IR.
Marxist and Neo-Marxist theories of IR believe on the economic and material aspects, they view the international system as an integrated capitalist system which endeavours capital accumulation.  In contrast to the Marxist theory
dependency theory argues that the developed countries, in their quest of power, jeopardise the developing states through political advisors, foreign missions, experts, and multinational companies (MNCs), thus incorporating them into the capitalist system in order to appropriate the natural resources.  According to this theory a set of Core states exploit a set of weaker Periphery states for their prosperity. ..

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Summary

As a policy recommendation a seven step ‘International Policy Framework’ is recommended that will enable any department within the State Government to strategically develop international linkages creating well-balanced relationships.  
Step – 1
Identify a state or sister state to develop international linkages.  The criterion for selection should be based on either opportunistic selection or research based approach to satisfy economic or social objectives of the State.
Step – 2
Identify the relevant sectors of interest within the target state from the total of 17 Industrial Sectors (as discussed above).  The criterion for identification should be the state needs or opportunities that may arise as a result of cooperation.
Step – 3
Identify the nodal infrastructure within the target state and seek arrangements to connect it with local nodes.  In case there is more than one nodal connection available value core nodes more than the periphery.  This arrangement is based on the assumption that core nodes are less costly and yield greater economic benefits.
Step – 4
Identify peer connections within selected sectors and maintain transnational peer to peer relations with such connections.  This arrangement is expected to reduce transaction costs.
Step – 5
Arrange social networking events preferably co-sponsored, which build up on transnational relations established earlier.   
Step – 6
Identify transnational relations which are productive and have been very active throughout the term.  Mature such interactions with formal contracts, making state agreements which are long lasting.  This will thus further reduce the transaction costs.
Step – 7
Develop a general framework to evaluate the agreements and relations:
a. Logic Model
i. Establish short term, medium term and long term goals,
ii. Identify activities to be performed segregated evenly over the span of time
iii. Identify indicators that will be used for evaluation purposes
b. For trade specific projects use economic input output model to quantify the benefits and costs.  Few available IO models in the market are REDYN, IMPLAN and RIMS-II used by Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA US).
For social programs use cost and benefits analysis, or lesson drawings from the past.


STRUKTURA POLITYKI MIĘDZYNARODOWEJ

Streszczenie: Studium Międzynarodowej Relacji (SMR) można prześledzić od XVII wieku, od tego czasu SMR zostało zdominowane przez nieformalne trans-rządowe i ponadnarodowe stosunki powiatowe. Dokument ten określa międzynarodowe ramy polityki w świetle teorii, takie jak nowa ekonomia instytucjonalna oraz ekonomia gospodarki przestrzennej, w której gospodarki mogą zwiększyć swoje przychody z importu i korzyści społeczne. Państwa mogą ułatwić ich rozwój ekonomiczny i rozszerzyć dostęp do bogactwa. Jednocześnie mogą one zwiększyć podstawę opodatkowania i zwiększyć ich zdolność do zapewnienia wysokiej jakości usług publicznych. Po ustaleniu ogólnego zrozumienia makroekonomicznych działań w gospodarce, teoria przewagi komparatywnej została zdefiniowana w celu sprawdzenia poszczególnych sektorów otwartości, z których partnerzy handlowi mogą wzajemnie korzystać. Wykorzystany został model Input/Output do oceny działalności gospodarczej i ustalenia ogólnych ram w celu zdefiniowania kluczowych kroków dla określenia i wdrożenia skutecznego IRS.

Słowa kluczowe
: Relacje międzynarodowe, Procedury krajowe, Polityka krajowej współpracy, Ramy Międzynarodowego Partnerstwa, Ramy Partnerstwa Ekonomicznego, Rozwój międzynarodowy

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