Polish Journal of Management Studies
 ISSN 2081-7452
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Larisa Dragolea, Denisa Cotirlea


The present paper work contains aspects about the emotional intelligence, which has become a popular topic in the business press in recent years. The primary aim of the work paper is to help readers get a view of current conceptualizations of emotional  intelligence, while providing an opportunity to see the interferences ans similarities between it, management and leadership. This work paper also contains some aspects regarding a study which reflects emotional intelligence in Romania, whose results  were interpreted and analyzed.
We all know that leadership abilities vary according to rater perspective and level of emotional intelligence. In general, co-workers seem to appreciate managers' abilities to  control their impulses and anger, to withstand adverse events and stressful situations, to be happy with life, and to be a cooperative member of the group. These leaders are more likely to be seen as participative, self-aware, composed, and balanced.

This subject was chosen subject because -in authors' opinion- the ability to demonstrate yourself as a cooperative, contributing, and constructive member of one group is critical for long-term career success.

Keywords: emotional intelligence, management, leadership


Emotional intelligence has become a vital element for the way today's leaders approach the growing challenges they face in the business environment.
This subject was chosen because emotional intelligencecan assist leaders in an evermore difficult leadership role and in the middle of the "Talent War" [11] and, especially at the highest levels in organizations, it can give developing leaders a competitive  edge[2]

According to the specialized literature, the emotional intelligence has been discovered since 1980, when Reuven Baron was researching the human qualities which favour success; he showed that in this processes there are many dimensions  involved, surpassing the concept of traditional intelligence, and thus shaping the concept of  "emotional intelligence".  
In 1985, Howard Gardener, a renowned psychologist, expanded the vision - existent at that time - over intelligence and proposed seven types of intelligence, which also included social intelligence. The idea was that success, both in the professional environment  and in the private life (at least where the leading of other people is involved), depends on the manner in which leaders and managers understand themselves, but also the people around them.

According to other authors, emotional intelligence is a concept born in the United States in 1990 in an article written by John Mayer and Peter Salovey [12].
Claims have been made that the higher up a person goes in the organization, the more important emotional intelligence becomes, compared to intelligence quotient (IQ), and technical  skills [9].
This is due to the fact that the ability of the leader to be able to identify and understand the emotions of others in the workplace, to be able to manage their own and others' positive and negative emotions, to be able to control emotions in the workplace  effectively, to utilize emotional information when problem solving and to be able to express their feelings to others is integral to the leader being effective at creating appropriate levels of job satisfaction [6]

The appeal of emotional intelligence is, therefore, due to the idea that success is not simply determined by well-known abilities, such as verbal and quantitative, but also by abilities pertaining to emotions [21].
It must be said that this concept was massively popularized by Daniel Goleman, who, in 1995, published the bestseller "Emotional Intelligence".

...more in full version


As Goleman says, emotional intelligence is defined as a person's self-awareness, selfconfidence, self-control, commitment and integrity, and a person's ability to communicate, influence, initiate change and accept change  [7].
While the IQ refers to the academic intelligence, the learning ability and the mental, theoretical development, to the building-up of theoretical knowledge and information from various areas., the EQ comes as an addition to IQ, because apart from "the  mental brain" there is also an "emotional brain": the balance between reason and feelings is essential and it's necessary to study both phenomenon and to assess them with the help of intelligence tests.

Studies have shown that emotional intelligence impacts a leader's ability to be effective [8]. Three of the most important aspects of emotional intelligence for a leader's ability to make effective decisions are selfawareness,  communication and influence, commitment and integrity.
The assessment of emotional intelligence in leadership is complex; the differences between the manager and the leader -as described by several authors- clearly distinguish the artist (leader) from the technocrat (manager). Evidently, on one hand, the  competences associated with emotional intelligence are clearly identifiable in the expected traits of leadership.

On the other hand, managers who do not develop their emotional intelligence have difficulty in building good relationships with peers, subordinates, superiors and clients [8]
Because effective leadership is identified by those who concentrate on people and the task at hand in such a way that the task is completed and the people remain motivated and happy [11], it is a sure fact that leadership cannot  exists unless the leader possess a high degree of involvement in communicating with others, self-knowledge and high degree of understanding his/her own feelings and expressing them, self-respect and pride etc.
Unlike academic intelligence, emotional intelligence is acquired, which means it can be learned, because is based on the evolution of the individual in the social frame-work.


[1]   Blaine, L., (2005), Principiile puterii- impune-te cu onoare, Allfa Publishing, Bucharest;
[2]   Childs, R., (2004), Emotional Intelligence and Leadership, retrieved September 6, 2010 from
[3]   Covey, S., (2006), Etica liderului eficient sau conducerea bazata pe principii, Allfa Publishing, Bucharest;
[4]   Fullan, M., (2001), Leading in a culture of change, retrieved August 28, 2010 from
[6]   Gardner, L.; Stough C, (2002), Examining the relationship between leadership and emotional intelligence in senior level managers, in Leadership and Organisation Development Journal, Vol. 23: 68-78;
[7]   Goleman, D., (1996), Emotional Intelligence, Bloomsbury Publishing, London;
[8]   Goleman, D., (1998), Working with Emotional Intelligence, Bantam Books Publishing, New York;
[9]   Goleman, D.; Boyatzis, R.; McKee A., (2002), Primal Leadership: realizing the power of emotional intelligence, Harvard Business School Press, Boston;Goleman, D., (2007) Inteligenta emotionala in leadership, Curtea Veche Publishing, Bucharest;
[10]   Kets de Vries, M., (2007), Leadership - arta si maiestria de a conduce, Codecs Publishing, Bucharest;
[11]   Manser, P; Menstry R.; Singh P., (2007), Importance of emotional intelligence in conceptualizing collegial leadership in education, in South African Journal of Education, Vol 27(3): 541-563, availabe online at
[12]   php/saje/article/viewFile/117/39
[13]   Mayer, J.; Salovey, P., (1997), What is Emotional Intelligence in Salovey, P. and Sluyter D., Emotional development and emotional intelligence, Basic Books Publishing, New York;
[14]   Moraru, I., (1995), Introducere in psihologia manageriala, ed. Didactica si Pedagogica, Bucharest;
[15]   Neculai, A, (1977), Liderii in dinamica grupurilor, ed. Stiintifica si enciclopedica, Bucharest;
[16]   Roco, M., (2004), Creativitate si inteligenta emotionala, Polirom Publishing, Iasi;
[17]   Stein, S.; Book H., (2001), The EQ edge: Emotional intelligence and your success, Stoddart Publishing, New York;
[18]   Zlate, M., (2004), Leadership si management, Polirom Publishing, Iasi;



Niniejsza praca przedstawia aspekty inteligencji emocjonalnej, ktora w ostatnich latach stala sie popularnym tematem przedstawianym na lamach prasy biznesowej. Podstawowym celem niniejszej pracy jest pomoc czytelnikowi w zdobyciu opinii na temat biezacych  konceptualizacji dotyczacych inteligencji emocjonalnej, dostarczajac mozliwosc dostrzezenia wplywow i podobienstw miedzy IT, zarzadzaniem i przywodztwem. Praca zawiera takze pewne aspekty odnoszace sie do badan ktore odzwierciedlaja inteligencje emocjonalna  w Rumunii, ktorych rezultaty zostaly poddane analizie i zinterpretowane.
Widomo, ze zdolnosci przywodcze roznia sie w zalznosci od pogladow i poziomu inteligencji emocjonalnej. Wspolpracownicy doceniaja menadzerow, ktory posiadaja umiejetnosci kontrolowania  impulsow i zlosci, ktorzy potrafia przetrwac niemile wydarzenia i stresujace sytuacje, ktorzy sa zadowoleni z zycia i sa chetnymi do wspolpracy czlonkami grupy. Liderzy posiadajacy takie cechy sa odbierani jako bardziej uczestniczacy, swiadomi, opanowani  i zrownowazeni.

Ten temat podjeto, poniewaz zdaniem autora zdolnosc zaprezentowania siebie jako osoby sklonnej do wspolpracy, wnoszacej cos do grupy, konstruktywnej jest czynnikiem krytycznym w odniesieniu dlugoterminowego sukcesu.

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