MIGRATION TRENDS OF THE LABOR FORCE IN THE SLOVAK REPUBLIC AT THE BEGINNING OF THE SECOND MILLENNIUM - Polish Journal of Management Studies

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MIGRATION TRENDS OF THE LABOR FORCE IN THE SLOVAK REPUBLIC AT THE BEGINNING OF THE SECOND MILLENNIUM

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MIGRATION TRENDS OF THE LABOR FORCE IN THE SLOVAK REPUBLIC AT THE BEGINNING OF THE SECOND MILLENNIUM
Kotulič R., Adamišin P.


Abstract
At present time, there is no single coherent systematic theory that would fully explain the causes of the migration or the motivation that leads to the population migration. Migration theories aim for explanations for the population migration. The idea that prevails is that the employment and economic motives are primary reasons for migration; however, these are not the only reasons. Structural and cyclic aspects of unemployment in the Slovak Republic significantly contribute to the foreign migration. It is necessary to solve this undesirable effect through the policy aimed at the competitiveness of the economy and creation of favorable conditions for the long-term sustainable economic growth.

Keywords: Balance of Migration, Immigration, Emigration, Labor Migration


Introduction

Slovakia is currently a country with population free to decide where to spend their lives, where to study, work, where to travel to gain knowledge or experience. This does not mean that there are no new obstacles, restrictive immigration limits, the visa requirement, the lack of financial resources, etc. Nevertheless, the actual number of people deciding to migrate, the contemplation of migration, i.e. the potential migration is the reflection of the life perspective in Slovakia.
First theories of migration presented in late 1960s and early 1970s focused on the reason for migration to be the comparison of pensions in the homeland and the region chosen for immigration. The decision on migration from one region to other (usually from the poor to the rich one) in these models depends on the amount of income in both regions and the probability of the individual of earning such income. These models anticipate the individual to be neutral to risks. Two trends can be deduced from these models. The first one states that the decrease of imbalance between poor and rich regions will decrease the migration. The second states that the higher probability of employment in rich regions increases the migration. Empirical studies focusing in the inter-regional mobility in transitive economies usually note a very low level of migration and they try to determine factors influencing this level [2].

The aim of this article is to evaluate the course and consequence of the labor force migration in Slovakia and abroad. There were several research methods used, such as the comparative method, the method of analysis and synthesis. References were derived from web pages, academic books, research journals and periodicals. The course of the migration is seen from the migration balance, i.e. the depiction of the migration in a certain time period. The balance of the labor force migration is supplemented by data on absolute numbers of migrants. The balance of migration is considered the difference between the number of emigrants and immigrants.

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Summary

The migration has many economic consequences. Usually, considered are external influences of migration and an influence on the competitiveness and effectiveness of the function of economies. The economy with the outflow of educated people loses the productive labor force and its production possibilities are decreasing; at the same time, it loses external influences of educated people on the society. The country with outflow of people who received the education subsidized from taxes loses the possibility of the return of this investment in the form of higher taxes paid by economically active population with higher income. The departure of educated people with higher income abroad results in the pressure on the tax revenue of the state and consequently on the increase of the tax load or reduction of the state provided services.
The country loses the productive labor force, sources invested in its education, product created and from the fiscal perspective the additional tax revenues. During the progressing process of integration of the Slovak Republic in the European Union, these tendencies will probably only strengthen. The effort of the European Union for the transition period for enabling the free movement of the labor force is not necessarily only in the interest of the current EU member states. As stated above, it is the educated and young labor force that migrates. This is the reason for the home country to solve the problem of the outflow of the qualified labor force abroad.


TRENDY W MIGRACJI ZAROBKOWEJ NA POCZĄTKU REPUBLIKI SŁOWACKIEJ DRUGIEGO TYSIĄCLECIA


Streszczenie:
 W chwili obecnej, nie ma jednej spójnej teorii, która mogłaby w pełni wyjaśnić przyczyny migracji lub motywacji, która prowadzi do migracji ludności. Teorie migracji dążą do wyjaśnienia zjawiska migracji ludności. Obowiązuje przekonanie, że o zjawisku tym decydują motywy związane z zatrudnieniem i motywy ekonomiczne, jako główne przyczyny migracji, jednakże nie są to jedyne powody. Strukturalne i cykliczne aspekty bezrobocia w Republice Słowackiej znacząco przyczyniły się do migracji zagranicznych. Należy rozwiązać ten niepożądany efekt poprzez politykę mającą na celu zwiększenie konkurencyjności gospodarki oraz tworzenia korzystnych warunków dla długoterminowego zrównoważonego wzrostu gospodarczego.

Słowa kluczowe
: Zrównoważona Migracja, Imigracja, Emigracja, Migracja zarobkowa


References

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[2] Horváth R. Medziregionální migrace obyvateľstva v Českej republike. In: Ekonomický časopis, 55, 2007, pp. 731-746. ISSN 0013-3035.
[3] Kočišová A. Zahraničná migrácia a jej dopad na ekonomiku a spoločnosť [DP] / Prešovská univerzita v Prešove, Fakulta manažmentu, 2007. 82 s.
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[6] Rievajová E. Migrácia pracovnej sily zo SR, príčiny a dopady. In Práca a sociálna politika, Bratislava: Výskumný ústav práce, sociálnych vecí a rodiny. 2001, vol.12, pp. 7-10. ISSN 1210-5643.
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