Polish Journal of Management Studies
 ISSN 2081-7452
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Abstracts > Vol 7

Tabor J.

Abstract: Management processes play the key role in providing for health and safe conditions of work and managers play the most important role in counteracting accidents at work. This article discusses some basic problems related to inappropriate organisation of work as a cause of accidents in the overall national economy, in the Industrial Processing section, and in the particular processing departments in years 2006-2011. It was found out that inappropriate organisation of work was an especially significant cause in case of serious and fatal accidents. In many departments of Industrial Processing section, it was even pointed out twice more often, as a reason for serious and fatal accidents, than total accidents.

Key words: occupational safety management, accidents, causes


A human being is both the subject and the object of interactions within the occupational health and safety management system, as it is not possible for the company to be managed and operated without participation of its employees upon all operational levels, while at the same time the performance of work processes may be connected with various accident- and/or illness-related hazards.
Management processes, such as: planning, organising, motivating and controlling, when referred to concrete actions that are unique for the occupational health and safety area, covering primarily identification of hazards and occupational risk assessment, monitoring conditions of work, corrective and preventive actions, internal communication and training programmes [11], play the key role in providing for health and safe conditions of work. Due to the fact that it is high ranking managers who are responsible for the effective and successful performance of management processes [2], it can be assumed that managers play the most important role in counteracting accidents at work. It is the managers who are responsible both for hazards that occur in work processes and for reasons that cause accidents. This results from the fact that it is managers who are responsible for selection of technologies, methods and manners of work, selection of employees in terms of their physical and psychological characteristics, selection and availability of means of protection against hazards, and many other actions.

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errors affect their employees conditions of work and the operations they perform; therefore one may say that their errors affect errors being committed by their employees. Some of the basic reasons for accidents at work, which employees suffer through the fault of their managers, include: wrongly communicated tasks, creating error-encouraging situations, wrong selection of employees, lack of accurate training programmes, infringements on safe work principles being tolerated by direct managers, and inappropriately or ineffectively motivating employees to perform their work in a safe manner.
In line with the MORT concept [5], the accident is always preceded by a series of planning errors and operational and organisational errors that result in the employee being not adjusted towards environmental or social conditions. In other words, it is not the employee who is guilty of an accident, but the situation in which he found himself and which provoked him to commit the error, including broadly comprehended work environment that comprises, besides physical / material elements, also some psychological aspects, such as: managing employees, atmosphere at work, personal relations, etc.
The basic objective of our studies was to analyse accidents from the standpoint of identification of reasons related to errors in the work health and safety management process, as it is routine actions taken every day by the managerial staff that have the most fundamental significance in preventing accidents at work.
As a result of our statistical data review, we observed that over the studied years 2006-2011, inappropriate general organisation of work was responsible on the average for 5.5 % of reasons for accidents at work in the overall economy and 6.5 % of reasons for accidents at work in industrial processing, whereas in case of fatal accidents, it was respectively: 14.2 % in the overall economy and 16.4 % in the processing branch.

Furthermore, it was found out that the share of inappropriate general organisation of work in total reasons for accidents in the overall economy fell in years 2006-2011 by almost 1%, whereas it significantly increased in reasons for fatal accidents, in industrial processing by almost 5%. At the same time, the share of inappropriate organisation of work in total reasons for accidents and serious and fatal accidents was highly variable within the frameworks of industrial processing

Thus, it can be assumed that organisational factors play varying roles in various industrial processing departments. On the other hand, it is important that inappropriate organisation of work, i.e. managerial errors, were mainly pointed out with reference to serious and fatal accidents, i.e. accidents with higher degree of recordability. Hence, it may be presumed that this problem is also significant in the context of less serious accidents and other potential accident-related events.
Identification of reasons for accidents is the first step towards limiting the risk level of accidents, which result from similar reasons, occurring in future [1]. It is also helpful in evaluating safety requirements and principles as stipulated in various kinds of rules and regulations at various levels of the economy, section or department. Recognising and understanding the nature of errors being committed by managers may be of crucial significance in building effective work health and safety management systems. Therefore, our analysis as discussed in this article is fully justified in practice.


[1]. Grabara J., Bajdor P., Salamon S., Dima I.C., Risk Management System as a Tool to Reduce the Number of Accidents and Injuries in the Enterprises, Chapter 7, [In:] Safety of the System: Human – Technical Object – Environment. Work Health and Safety in Production, Operation and Maintenance, Monograph (Ed.) By S. Salamon.
[2]. Griffin R.W., Podstawy zarządzania organizacjami, Wydaw. PWN, Warszawa 2010.
[3]. Guidelines on occupational safety and health management systems ILO-OSH 2001, International Labor Office, Geneva.
[4]. Karczewska K., J. Karczewski J.T., Część 8.9. Błędy kierownictwa, [w:] Zarządzanie bezpieczeństwem pracy. Ocena ryzyka zawodowego, (red.) J. Karczewski, Wydaw. FORUM, Poznań 2004.
[5]. Karczewski J.T.: Systemy zarządzania bezpieczeństwem pracy, Wydawnictwo ODDK, Gdańsk 2000.
[6]. Karczewski J.T., Karczewska K.W.: Zarządzanie bezpieczeństwem pracy, Wydaw. ODDK, Gdańsk 2012.
[7]. OHSAS 18001:1999 Systemy zarządzania bezpieczeństwem i higiena pracy. Specyfikacja, BSI (tłumaczenie polskie: DNV Poland).
[8]. PN-N-18001:2004 Systemy zarządzania bezpieczeństwem i higieną pracy. Wymagania. PKN, Warszawa 2004.
[9]. Rozporządzenie Ministra Gospodarki i Pracy z dnia 8 grudnia 2004 r. w sprawie statystycznej karty wypadku przy pracy (Dz. U. Nr 269, poz. 2672).
[10]. Rozporządzenie Ministra Pracy i Polityki Społecznej z dnia 7 stycznia 2009 r. w sprawie statystycznej karty wypadku przy pracy (Dz. U. 14 poz. 80).
[11]. Tabor J.: Organizacyjne problemy bezpieczeństwa pracy w świetle analizy wypadków, [w:] Zarządzanie bezpieczeństwem i higieną pracy. Tom 3. Techniczne, organizacyjne i ludzkie uwarunkowania pracy w przemyśle, (red.) J.Tabor, Wyd.WZPCzest., Częstochowa 2012.
[12]. Wypadki przy pracy w latach 2006 - 2011 r., Informacje i opracowania statystyczne, Wyd. GUS, Warszawa 2007 - 2012, [publikacje dostępne na http://www.stat.gov/gus/ praca_ludnosc_PLK_HTML.htm].


Streszczenie: Procesy zarządzają odgrywają kluczowa rolę w zapewnieniu bezpiecznych i higienicznych warunków pracy a zarządzający odgrywają najważniejszą rolę w przeciwdziałaniu wypadkom przy pracy. W artykule omówiono podstawowe problemy związane z niewłaściwą organizacją pracy jako przyczyną wypadków w gospodarce narodowej, w sekcji Przetwórstwo przemysłowe oraz w poszczególnych działach przetwórstwa w latach 2006-2011. Stwierdzono, że niewłaściwa organizacja pracy jest przyczyną szczególnie istotną w przypadku wypadków ciężkich i śmiertelnych. W wielu działach Przetwórstwa przemysłowego wskazywana jest nawet dwukrotnie częściej jako przyczyna wypadków ciężkich i śmiertelnych niż wypadków ogółem.

Słowa kluczowe:
zarządzanie bezpieczeństwem pracy, wypadki, przyczyny wypadków

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