Place of Non-formal Education in the Career Building Process - Polish Journal of Management Studies

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Place of Non-formal Education in the Career Building Process

Abstracts > Vol 9

PLACE OF non-formal education IN THE career building PROCESS
Tabor J.

Abstract: Non-formal education taken up over the entire professional life is one of the basic ways to build an individual career, as well as significant factor of improvement quality of human resources in general, which exerts ever increasing impact upon development of countries, especially in global economy conditions. The basic objective of the work we conducted was to perform comparative analysis and to identify changes, if any, in education in the non-formal system in Poland in years 2006 and 2011, in the area of: percentage of persons making use of education in this system, age of persons being trained, educational institutions, number of hours dedicated to education, and reasons to take up education and fields of education.

Keywords: non-formal education, career management

Introduction

According to the Economic Activity Survey of the EU Population, in 2009, approximately 70% of adults (aged 25-64) completed at least upper secondary school in Europe. This means that adults with weak educational accomplishments (i.e. lower than upper secondary school) constitute less than one third of all adult residents of Europe. Nevertheless, this value corresponds to approximately 76 million of adults in the European Union. [3]
Adult education in the non-formal system complements the education accomplished in formal systems, including, in particular, at the stage of acquiring education. Non-formal education is conscious and organised educational and upbringing activity, conducted outside the established formal school system, which makes it possible for a defined group of participants to achieve their adopted educational objectives. [8]
Within the conditions of dynamically changing requirements at the labour market, in particular within the context of development of state-of-the-art technologies, it has become necessary to keep raising one
s level of qualifications and skills. Education in the non-formal educational system, in the form of various types of courses, training programmes, seminars, workshops or other forms, becomes especially important after the 25 th year of life. In line with results of the Adult Education Survey, the countries with the highest coefficients of participation of adults in total (formal and other-than-formal) education, among the total 31 countries that we studied were: Sweden (73.4%), Finland (55.0%) and Norway (54.6%). For the sake of the contrast, the lowest coefficients were obtained by: Romania (7.4%), Hungary (9.0%) and Turkey (14.1%). The average for Europe was 34.9%. Against this background, the coefficient for Poland was only 21.8%. [3]
It should be emphasised that in-training education taken up over the entire professional life is a basic factor not only in building one
s individual career but also in improving the quality of human resources in general, which exerts ever increasing impact upon development of countries, especially in global economy conditions.

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Summary

According to the research that was conducted in 2009, the highest coefficient of the share of adults in non-formal education was observed in Sweden (69.4%), Finland (51.2%), Norway (50.6%) and Denmark (43.1%). On the other hand, the lowest: in Romania (4.7%), in Hungary (6.8%) and in Turkey (12.8%). For Poland, the coefficient was 18.6%, with the average value for Europe being 31.5%. [3]
The basic objective of the work we conducted was to perform comparative analysis and to identify changes, if any, in education in the non-formal system in Poland, in years 2006 and 2011.
We observed that non-formal education is participated by a growing number of persons (increase from 18.6% in 2006 up to 21% in 2011), but still this coefficient is below average for the European countries. The share of persons from older age groups in the total number of professional development trainees gradually falls in both analysed years, the most, i.e. approximately 40% of professional development trainees are aged 25-34. More than the half of all educational activities in the non-formal system is organised by educational centres, training companies or vocational training centres: 50.5 % in 2006 and 54.7 % in 2011. On the other hand, schools, universities and research institutes have a lot of catching up to do with this respect. For educational activities in-training education, participants dedicate not more than 40 hours, from which it follows that these activities have the nature of courses aimed at making up for shortages in specific skills. For more than 60% of the analysed persons, the most significant reason to take up continuing education is professional career development; therefore, in the area of non-formal education fields, the most frequent are those that are primarily connected with the performed work.
From the standpoint of the need to increase educational activities among adults, at least to the average European values, including, in particular, in the area of non-formal education, it is necessary to increase the awareness of benefits that flow from continuing education, both for employees and employers. It would be good at least to develop some co-financing programmes for continuing education using various sources, including public funds and employers’ funds.


References


[1]. CEDEFOP, Terminology of vocational training policy. A multilingual glossary of an enlarged Europe, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luksemburg 2004.
[2]. CEDEFOP, Terminology of European education and training policy. A Selection of 100 key, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luksemburg 2008.
[3]. Dorośli w systemie edukacji formalnej: polityka i praktyka w Europie, Fundacja Rozwoju Systemu Edukacji, Warszawa 2011.
[4]. EUROSTAT, Classification of learning activities – Manual, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luksemburg 2006.
[5]. Kształcenie dorosłych, Informacje i opracowania statystyczne, Wyd. GUS, Warszawa 2009, [publikacja dostępna na http://www.stat.gov.pl].
[6]. Kształcenie dorosłych 2011, Informacje i opracowania statystyczne, Wyd. GUS, Warszawa 2013, [Access on http://www.stat.gov.pl].
[7]. NRDC, Study on European terminology in adult education for a common language and common understanding and monitoring of the sector, NRDC, 2010, [Access on http://ec.europa.eu/education/more-information/doc/2010/adultreport_en.pdf].
[8]. Okoń W., Słownik pedagogiczny, PWN, Warszawa 1992.
[9]. Vlăduțescu, Ș.,The Communication Membranes. European Scientific Journal, 9/2013
[10]. UNESCO, International Standard Classification of Education ISCED 1997, UNESCO-UIS 2006, [Access on http://www.uis.unesco.org/TEMPLATE/pdf/isced/ ISCED_A.pdf].
[11]. Ustawa z dnia 7 września 1991 r. o systemie oświaty (Dz. U. Nr 95 poz.425 ze zmianami).
[12]. Ustawa z dnia 27 lipca 2005 r. Prawo o szkolnictwie wyższym (Dz. U. Nr 164 oz.1365 ze zmianami).


MIEJSCE KSZTAŁCENIA POZAFORMALNEGO W BUDOWANIU KARIERY


Streszczenie: Kształcenie pozaformalne, podejmowane w ciągu całego życia zawodowego, jest jednym z podstawowych sposobów budowania kariery indywidualnej, a także istotnym czynnikiem poprawy jakości zasobów ludzkich w ogóle, warunkującym coraz silniej rozwój państw, zwłaszcza w warunkach gospodarki globalnej. Zasadniczym celem przeprowadzonych badań było dokonanie analizy porównawczej i zidentyfikowanie ewentualnych zmian, dotyczących kształcenia w systemie pozaformalnym w Polsce
w latach 2006 i 2011, w zakresie: odsetka osób korzystających z kształcenia w tym systemie, wieku osób kształcących się, instytucji prowadzących działania edukacyjne, liczby godzin przeznaczonych na kształcenie, powodów podejmowania kształcenia oraz dziedzin kształcenia.


Słowa kluczowe: kształcenie pozaformalne, zarządzanie karierą zawodową


非正规教育事业建设进程中的地位
摘要:非正规教育占去了整个职业生涯都是素质的的基本方法之一,一般情况下,生成的个人职业生涯,以及人力资源提高的重要因素施加后发展的国家,特别是素质的在全球经济条件日益增加的影响。我们进行的工作的基本目标是要执行的比较分析和确定更改,如果任何地区的在 2006 年和 2011 年,在波兰的非正规制度教育: 比例的人利用此系统中的教育、 年龄的人正在接受培训、 教育机构、 小时数致力于教育,并采取了教育和教育领域的原。
关键字: 非正规教育、 职业生涯管理。



 
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