Polish Journal of Management Studies
 ISSN 2081-7452
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Abstracts > Vol 10.2

Papuc M., Edu T., Negricea I.C.

Abstract: The present paper aims to identify coordinates of the buying behaviour prior to the Easter celebration displayed by people shopping from large surface stores in Bucharest, Romania. Through a comprehensive semi-structured, disguised and direct observation performed by people based on an observation guide with 7 topics conducted in three Kaufland stores located in various parts of Bucharest, quantitative and qualitative peculiarities of the buying and consumption behaviour of 413 individuals were uncovered. The findings of this study display the product categories, types and brands chosen by shoppers in large surface stores as well as coordinates of the in-store behaviour, rendering a detailed image of the conclusions prompted by the buying decision-making process with tremendous significance for the retail sector in Romania.

Key words
: observation, observation guide, purchasing behaviour, behaviour patterns, semi-structured, disguised and direct observation

Observation is a marketing research technique with a broad usage prompting distinct advantages in data collection about people, actions, situations (Kotler and Armstrong, 2008), objects and events (Haydam and Mostert, 2013) in which the researcher does not interact or communicate with the subjects (Catoiu et al., 2004). One of the most important peculiarities of this method resides in the fact that the collected data depict what individuals do and not what they say they do (Wells and Lo Sciuto, 1996). Reflecting a particular behaviour or various ways of interaction (Atkin, 1978), the data obtained through observation aid a researcher understand how individuals act but with no clues about motives and influencing factors inducing that particular action, recording a naturalistic behaviour and even rendering behavioural patterns (Malhotra, 2004). With no involvement in an event (Arnoud and Wallendorf, 1994), observation is deemed suitable for use if (Boote and Mathews, 1999) the object under investigation is a social process or a mass activity and/or easily observable and/or occurring at a subconscious level and/or the observed consumers do not want or cannot communicate with the researcher. Observation can deliver quantitative and qualitative data recorded by humans or machines (Chamberlain and Broderick, 2007) recording the actual behaviour and not the stated one (Papuc, 2007). The extant literature reveals several forms of observation used in particular situations, a comprehensive grouping being: structured-unstructured; participant-nonparticipant; ongoing, sampled; disguised; undisguised (Chelcea, 2004).
The in-store observation has emerged as a distinct research field due to the comprehensive buying behaviour data obtained through the use of this technique. In general, observation performed within stores can deliver valuable data about inventory and product category, brand, shelf location, facing and price, display, POP (point of purchase) material and product testing (Datculescu, 2004; Proctor, 2005).
The current study has its roots in a previous research performed in 2012 (Papuc and Edu, 2013), the observation sheet comprising topics tested in the respective research and additional ones according to the present study objectives.

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Based on the collected data, each hypothesis presumed at the beginning of the study should be assessed and confirmed, partially confirmed or rejected:
H1: More than 50% of the buyers spend 30 minutes or less in one of the three stores can be confirmed as 61.2% of the shoppers spent less than 30 minutes inside the stores.
H2: Most of the buyers reside in Bucharest, Ilfov, Prahova, Giurgiu and Ialomita can be partially confirmed as the first two alternatives were ranked as it was assumed, with Bucharest and Ilfov but followed by Giurgiu, Buzau and Arges.
H3: More than 90% of the buyers shop using a trolley can be confirmed as 92.7% of the shoppers chose trolleys when entering the stores.
H4: At least 50% of the individuals make the first stop in a store at the “fruits and vegetables” section can be confirmed as 82.08% of the shoppers made the first stop at the “fruits and vegetables” section.
H5: Fruits and vegetables are purchased at a higher frequency, followed by meat and meat-by-products, alcoholic beverages, sweets and cleaning products can be partially confirmed as the first two options were ranked as it was assumed. According to the collected data, the order was: fruits and vegetables, meat and meat-by-products, sweets, cleaning products and alcoholic beverages.
H6: More than 50% of the shoppers select more than one product from the sections where they stop can be confirmed as 72% of the buyers purchased more than one product from each store section where they stopped.
H7: More than 50% of the buyers select products from inside the section at middle height can be partially confirmed as 62% of the buyers selected products from the store aisles but only 21% picked up products from the section
s middle level.
H8: The buyer displays a wide variety of in-store gestures in the buying process can be confirmed as the buyers displayed gestures, such as: content, joy, surprise, body gestures, curiosity, hasting and relaxation.
H9: The buyer tries to gather intelligence about an offer by reading the price tags, the product instructions, by touching and testing the product can be confirmed as the shoppers pursued the following actions: price reading, product and package analyses, special offer analysis, instructions reading and price comparisons.
H10: The buyer communicates with his/her companions, other buyers and store employees in the buying process can be confirmed as 52% of the observed individuals interacted with their companion/s, store staff or other shoppers or talked over the phone about their shopping experience.
The present research provides interesting details about the buying behaviour peculiarities displayed by people prior to the Easter celebration offering an image of the product categories, types and brands chosen by shoppers in large surface stores as well as coordinates of the in-store behaviour. This study delivers findings of quantitative and qualitative nature of the individual buying decision process with significant value for the retail sector. However, this study, being an observation, rendering the actual behaviour and not the declared one, unveils merely effects of the buying decision process, without carrying answers pertaining to the motives underlying these decisions, but these answers are the prerogatives of surveys.

Prior and during festive seasons, individuals tend to change their consumption and hence buying behaviour to comply with certain traditions. However, in recent years due to financial constrains on one side and generation change on the other, new tastes and habits are prompted adding to the traditional ones or even replacing some of them. Only the manufacturers and retailers which monitor these shifts and tailor their assortment accordingly stand a chance to preserve and strengthen marketing goals, such as market positions and shares.

Arnould E., Wallendorf M., 1994, Market-oriented Ethnography: Interpretation Building and Marketing Strategy Formulation, "Journal of Marketing Research", 31(November).
Atkin, C., 1978, Observation of Parent-Child Interaction in Supermarket Decision-Making, "Journal of Marketing", 42(4).
Boote J., Mathews A., 1999, Saying is one thing: doing is another: the role of observation in marketing research, "Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal", 2(1).
Catoiu I. et al, 2004, Cercetari de marketing, Bucuresti, Ed. Uranus.
Chamberlain L., Broderick A., 2007, The application of physiological observation methods to emotion research, "Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal", 10(2).
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Papuc M., Edu T., 2013, Observing the Purchasing Behaviour of the Individuals in the Large Surface Stores During the 2012 Winter Holidays in Bucharest, "Romanian Economic and Business Review", 8, (Special Issue).
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Streszczenie: Niniejszy artykuł ma na celu określenie współrzędnych zachowań zakupowych przed Świętami Wielkanocnymi przejawianych przez ludzi robiących zakupy w sklepach wielkopowierzchniowych w Bukareszcie w Rumunii. Poprzez obszerną semistrukturalną, z ukrycia i bezpośrednią obserwację wykonaną przez ludzi na podstawie przewodnika obserwacji z 7 tematami, przeprowadzoną w trzech sklepach Kaufland zlokalizowanych w różnych częściach Bukaresztu, zostały wykryte ilościowe i jakościowe osobliwości zachowania zakupowego i konsumpcyjnego 413 osób. Wnioski z niniejszego badania wskazują kategorie produktów, rodzaje i marki wybrane przez kupujących
w sklepach wielkopowierzchniowych, jak również współrzędne zachowania w sklepie, czyniąc szczegółowy obraz wniosków wyłonionych w procesie podejmowania decyzji zakupu, które mają ogromne znaczenie dla sektora detalicznego w Rumunii.

Słowa kluczowe:
obserwacja, przewodnik obserwacji, zachowanie zakupowe, wzorce zachowań, semistrukturalny, obserwacja bezpośrednia i z ukrycia

購買行為模式在很大程度上面店 之前的復活節慶祝活動在羅馬尼亞首都布加勒斯特進行的三個Kaufland賣場觀察

摘要:本文旨在確定之前就被人從羅馬尼亞布加勒斯特大型水面店購物所顯示的復活節慶祝活動的購買行為的坐標。通過基於觀察指導與7主題位於布加勒斯特的各個部分3 Kaufland店進行人進行了全面的半結構化,偽裝和直接觀察,413人購買和消費行為的定量和定性的特點進行了揭露。這項研究的結果顯示在大型水面商店的購物者在店內的行為,以及坐標選擇的產品種類,型號和品牌,呈現由購買決策過程的巨大意義,促使結論的詳細圖像零售業在羅馬尼亞。

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