Polish Journal of Management Studies
 ISSN 2081-7452
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Abstracts > Vol 2


Scortar L.M., Veres Vincentiu M.M., Anamaria M. *


In many technological societies, after the Industrial Revolution the problem of solid waste was appeared because of changing the consumption pattern of society. The part of solid waste which is related to the municipality is called municipal solid waste.

Key words:  solid waste, management, disposal.


Waste management has more and more become an important issue for the entire world, the waste humans are producing are now almost reaching a breaking-point for what the environment can  take. This meaning that it is time to look for systems for an effective disposal of waste (Almorza et. al, 2002).
According to the EU strategy for waste management, the priority order for waste management options is as follow: reduction of waste, reusing of used material, recycling of used materials, recovering of energy from waste and the  last option is land filling of waste.
These kinds of waste encompass packaging, food waste, bottles including PET & glass, cans, papers and agricultural wastes are the wastes which are unwanted and useless for all inhabitants during their life.

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With non-selective collection of waste and maintaining compliant ramps, environmental impacts will continue year after year and environmental costs of rebalancing the affected areas  will increase continuously. In this context, local governments have taken some steps to try solving local problems and even some counties in the country have benefited from substantial sources of funding and external technical assistance; the measures  taken were not always fully implemented successfully.
These implementations demonstrate the difficulties faced by local authorities, based on two broad categories of institutional problems:
- no integrated approach to the whole cycle of waste and as such although many projects bear names that include the concept of - integrated management", they rely only on regional approaches;
- lack of adequately trained human resource for understanding all aspects related to practice of integrated waste management, mostly in public authorities systems are implemented only based on operation systems and services like "thinking - planning -  strategic planning" are outsourced. The interface between those who design and plan these systems and the body of officials or policy makers are often deficiencies of communication and interpretation, which are based on differences in professional training,  vision and attitude.
Eco-Campia Turzii project started in 2002 should provide solid waste management in aries Urban Community, aiming to identify the type of waste generated on site and the provision, implementation of rules and procedures, training, providing of means for  selective collection storage, waste delivery and monitoring of authorized firms.
Investment of 4.7 million euro from the County Council budget was finally ineffective. Power Pack machines purchased in 2002 without bidding, and which cost the county government budget of 4.7 million euro are physically and morally worn today without  the work since 2005, although they arrived at Campia Turzii based on waste management strategy that County Council (CJ) had in 2004.
Now, that strategy is abandoned, thereby wasting significant amounts and time. In Eco-Campia Turzii project, was settled waste sorting station on March 4, 2009 and aims to continue achieving a ramp transfer and is considered extremely useful in the present  conjuncture. Incoherent waste management policy leads to inefficiency in terms of investment made in this area. Such situations require special attention in order to achieve implementation of Environmental Acquis Communautaire.
What to reflect about?
Considering the problems outlined above, we believe there is a need to implement an integrated waste management system that could solve some problems.
The operations within any waste management system are clearly interconnected. The collection and sorting method employed, for example, will affect the ability to recover materials or produce marketable compost. Similarly, recovery of materials from the  waste stream may affect the viability of energy recovery schemes. It is necessary, therefore, to consider the entire waste management system in a holistic way.
What is required is an overall system that is both economically and environmentally sustainable. The main principles in designing a sustainable solid waste management system are:
1. Aim for the following:
- environmental effectiveness: reduce environmental burdens,
- economic affordability: drive costs out.
2. The system should be:
- integrated: in waste materials, in sources of waste, in collection methods, in treatment methods, anaerobic digestion, composting, energy recovery, landfill, recycling,
- market oriented: materials and energy must have end uses and generate income,
- flexible: for constant improvement.
3. Take care to:
- define clear objectives,
- design a total system against those objectives,
- operate on a large enough scal.e
4. Never stop looking for improvements in overall environmental performance and methods to lower operating costs.
Remember that there is no perfect system.
The holistic approach (Forbes R McDougall, 2003) has three main advantages:
1.   It gives the overall picture of the waste management process. Such a view is essential for
strategic planning. Handling of each waste stream separately is inefficient.
2.   Environmentally, all waste management systems are part of the same system - the global ecosystem. Looking at the overall environmental burden of the system is the only rational approach, otherwise reductions in the environmental burdens of one part  of the process may result in greater environmental burdens elsewhere.
3.   Economically, each individual unit in the waste management chain should run at a profit, or at least break even. Therefore, within the boundaries controlled by each operator, the financial incomes must at least match the outgoings. By looking at  the wider boundaries of the whole system, however, it is possible to determine whether the whole system operates efficiently and whether it could run at break even, or even at a profit. Only then can all the constituent parts be viable, provided that  income is divided up appropriately in relation to costs.


[1]   Almorza D., Brebbia C.A., Sale D. and Popov V., Waste Management and the Environment, Bookcraft, Bath, UK, 2002.
[2]   Negrea A., Cocheci L., Pode R., Managementul integrat al deseurilor solide orasenesti, Ed. POLITEHNICA, Timisoara, Colectia Protectia Mediului; 2007.
[3]   Paunescu I., Atudorei A., Gestiunea deseurilor urbane, Editura MATRIX ROM Bucuresti; 2002.
[4]   McDougall F.R., White P.R, Franke M., Hindle P., Integrated Solid Waste Management: A Life Cycle Inventory, second edition, Blackwell Publishing, 2003.
[5]   Environmental Impact Study: Rehabilitation of  inter zonal ramp Campia Turzii -Turda and facilities for Power-Pack System, Regional Centre of Expertise and Training in Recycling and Environmental Protection - RYENPRO Cluj-Napoca, 2002.
[6]   Aries Urban Community Association’s Statute.
[8]   Opportunity study for delegating management of sanitation services in the city of Turda, GPA Business Consulting, August 2009.
[9]    Feasibility study for objective monitoring ramp closing and household waste on the Cheii street in Turda city.
[10]   EUROPEAID 123053/D/SER/RO: „ Technical assistance for the preparation of five projects in environmental sector in Romania in "Solid Waste Management System” - Master Plan Cluj county, Kocks Consult GmbH / Enviroplan S.A. / EPEM S.A.  / Romair Consulting Ltd 42.
[11]   Description of project „ECO Campia Turzii” available online
[12]   „ECO Campia-Turzii slowly… but surely moving” available online at:
[13]   „Recycle for a cleaner city! available online at:



Po zakonczeniu Rewolucji Przemyslowej, w wielu spoleczenstwach technologicznych pojawil sie problem odpadow stalych spowodowany zmiana wzorca konsumpcyjnego. Czesc odpadow stalych ktore odnosza sie do samorzadu miejskiego nazywamy komunalnymi odpadami  stalymi. Artykul podejmuje problematyke ich gospodarowania w gminie Aries w Hrabstwie Cluj.

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