THE EVALUATION OF CONFLICTS’ DEGREE IN GROUP DECISION MAKING - Polish Journal of Management Studies

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THE EVALUATION OF CONFLICTS’ DEGREE IN GROUP DECISION MAKING

Abstracts > Vol 5

THE EVALUATION OF CONFLICTS DEGREE IN GROUP DECISION MAKING
Jiří Mazurek

Abstract: In group decision making conflicts arise from the fact that individuals or groups of individuals have often different opinions about problems solutions. These conflicts might have various degrees ranging from almost complete agreement to an absolute opposition of two equally strong sides. The aim of this article is to extend the evaluation of conflicts degree introduced by Z. Pawlak and others originally in the rough set theory context. The scope of this generalization embraces an arbitrary number of groups or individuals involved in a conflict, an arbitrary number of their attitudes as well as different degrees of agreement or disagreement on an issue (fuzzy conflicts). The evaluation of a conflict degree is divided into two levels, as both conflict situation as a whole and each individual in a conflict can be evaluated. The proposed measures of conflicts degree can be used in initial stages of decision making processes to the quantitative evaluation of conflict intensity, so they can provide useful information for a conflict potential resolution; and also, they might help to describe conflicts dynamics. Numerical examples of the evaluation of conflics degree are provided as well.

Keywords:
conflict, conflict degree, conflict analysis, group decision making, fuzzy conflict.

JEL codes: C69.


Introduction
Conflict analysis and conflict resolution can be found in many areas of decision making such as business, management, law, politics, military or environmental protection, see e.g. [1] or [10]. Conflicts arise from the fact that when a solution of a problem have to be found by a group of subjects, different opinions about possible solution emerge naturally. There are many tools for conflict resolution, e.g. graph theory, topology, the rough set theory or game theory. However, there is no universal theory of conflicts yet according to Pawlak and Skowron [7].
The conflict analysis in the rough set theory context was proposed by a Polish computer scientist Z. Pawlak and his colleagues in [7] and [9]. For the rough set theory see [5] or [6]. To avoid misunderstandings, in this article conflict analysis predominantly refers to the theoretical framework developed in [7] and [9]. In this context, conflict analysis deals with individuals, which are referred as agents, and their votings on some issue(s) with three feasible attitudes: favorable, against or abstention (neutral).

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Summary

The article provides some generalizations to the conflict analysis proposed in Pawlak and Skowron (2007) and Skowron et al. (2006). It introduces measures for the quantitative assessment of conflicts’ degree (or intensity) in situations, where conflict participants can express their attitudes as labels or real numbers. Such a setting might be relevant for a wide range of conflicts in economics, politics, law, medicine or military, where group decision making is involved. With the proposed measures both a conflict situation as a whole and each conflict participant can be evaluated. Moreover, the evaluation of conflicts’ degree can be used to describe conflicts’ evolution in time: it provides information whether a negotiation leads to a lesser conflict than before or not. Hence, these extensions to the original framework bring the theory closer to real-world conflict situations with more complex relationships between conflict participants and their feasible options, and they provide useful tool for conflicts potential resolution.

OCENA STOPNIA KONFLIKTÓW W GRUPOWYM PODEJMOWANIU DECYZJI

Abstrakt: W decyzjach grupowych konflikty wynikają z faktu że osoby lub grupy mają często różne opinie na temat rozwiązań problemów. Konflikty te mogą mieć różne stopnie, począwszy od pełnej zgody aż do absolutnego sprzeciwu obu stron. Celem niniejszego artykułu jest rozszerzenie oceny stopnia konfliktów wprowadzonego przez Z. Pawlaka i innych, pierwotnie w trudnym kontekście teorii mnogości. Zakres tego uogólnienia obejmuje dowolną liczbę grup lub osób zaangażowanych w konflikt, dowolną liczbę ich postaw a także różne stopnie zgodności lub niezgodności w kwestii „rozmytych konfliktów”. Ocena stopnia konfliktów dzieli się na dwóch poziomach, zarówno sytuacja konfliktu jako całości jak i ocena poszczególnych osób konfliktu. Proponowane środki pomiaru stopnia konfliktu mogą być stosowane w początkowych etapach decyzyjnych do ilościowej oceny intensywności konfliktu, dzięki czemu mogą one dostarczyć użytecznych informacji dotyczących potencjalnego konfliktu a także mogą pomóc opisać dynamikę konfliktu. Zawarte zostały również numeryczne przykłady oceny stopnia konfliktu.


 
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