Polish Journal of Management Studies
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Pachura P., Nowicka - Skowron M.*


The situation where European regions will fall behind with regard to defined categories of clusters with relation to their equivalents on the scale of the world economy can become  a significant factor in the low competitiveness of the regions in a global economy. This particularly refers to the new EU member countries in which the previous centralized economy system enforced top-down location of entire industrial branches regardless  of their possible effectiveness. Cluster and network structures in these countries significantly differ in the level of development and experience in the sphere of increasing competitiveness. (JEL: D24, D51, F01, F15, K33)

Key word: innovations, innovations theory, spatial perspective.


There are four main theorems for identified how to explain the reason why innovation is relatively concentrated in some places rather than others.
1) Agglomeration theory (Marshall, Hoover, Vernon). The main reasons why innovations are concentrated in larger cities are because those cities provide more encouraging environments for the formation of new firms and therefore  the early incubation phase. 2) Networked production theory (Becattini, Scott and Storper). The key features of this theory were the breakdown of vertically integrated corporations and the adoption of flexible specialization among the resulting networks  of smaller firms. 3) Knowledge economy theory (Lundvall). In this theory the main reasons why innovative firms group together in space is that some places are better at learning than others. This is because they have a combination of adaptable innovation  systems and labour markets that provide supplies of highly qualified and knowledgeable labour. 4) New competition and trade theory (Vernon, Porter, Krugman). Specialization and greater division of labour is one route by which regions in the advanced economies  may achieve absolute international competitive advantage. The city regions in the advanced economies that can provide high levels of specialization, sophisticated and highly qualified labour together with international trading capabilities.   In these  theories the reasons why innovation is  concentrated in space are a complex mixture of international trading capabilities, combined with regional specializations, high quality local factor conditions, sophisticated local and national customers, supporting  industries and innovation oriented firm strategies.
Probably the different combinations of elements of these theories offer the best explanation of the nature and working of innovation systems in different regions [16] as well as general regional geography theory [11].

... more in full version


The diagram below (figure 3 - enable in full version) presents a variety of approaches to innovation as development concepts in the territorial perspective. Various approaches may be considered in three areas: structuralist-organizational  with approaches such evolutionary economics, californian school, MIT school; social-institutional with collective learning process approach, innovative milieus or neo Marshalian nodes and cognitive approach with knowledge communities theory, buzz and  pipelines concept.

It should be noted that research on the process of innovation territories are developing in different directions. The  concept, which will dominate for a few years it is not known.  Moreover, in many cases we can not copy a variety of solutions in this area. It seems that with the development of economic theory and research on the process of globalization will emerge a new approaches to creating innovative cities, regions, states.  It is important that the Polish scientific community were actively involved in the creation and uses the concept of innovation systems at the level of spatial analysis.


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Sytuacja w ktorej regiony europejskie pozostana w tyle w odniesieniu do okre slonych kategorii klasterow w stosunku do ich odpowiednikow w skali gospodarki swiatowej moze stac sie istotnym czynnikiem niskiej konkurencyjno sci regionow w gospodarce globalnej. Dotyczy to zwlaszcza nowych kraj ow czlonkowskich UE, w ktorym poprzedni systemu gospodarki scentralizowanej egzekwowal  pozycjonowanie lokacji calych galezi przemyslu,  niezalenie od ich mozliwej efektywnosci. Struktury klastrowe i sieciowe w tych krajach znacznie r oznia sie poziomem rozwoju i doswiadczenia w zakresie podnoszenia konkurencyjno sci.

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